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Body mass index reference curves for the ukraine: Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes

There is broad international consensus concerning the utility of the WHO Child Growth Standards for assessing the growth of children 0 to 5 years of age.

Ethan Walker
Tuesday, September 20, 2016
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  • Winter, J. Dargent-Molina, B.

  • The main aim of this project was to develop Ukrainian growth centile charts of body mass and BMI for the developmental age population.

  • Individuals are included the CLSA cohort if they are between the ages of 45—85 years and able to read and speak in English or French. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

We speculate that the increase in BMI in the younger Ukrainian population is caused by an increase in the socioeconomic development of Ukraine. Obesity, as a complex disorder, is strongly related to lifestyle and associated with age, sex, family income, and urbanization. Excessive body weight is a growing public health problem in many countries and has significant consequences due to higher morbidity [ 30 ], negative impact on quality of life [ 31 ], and higher healthcare expenditures [ 32 ].

Z-score calculated using WHO formula statistics for boys and girls. There were women included in the validation sample. However, the prevalence of this condition — and the relationship to physical performance parameters — varies across definitions. This research has been conducted using the Baseline Comprehensive v2.

Heshmat, S. Therefore, the bodyy of many countries regularly collect and analyze anthropometric data regarding the physical development of their population [ 3 — 6 ]. The presented curves might be an optimal clinical tool for healthcare in Ukraine. Buchmueller and M. Schaffrath Rosario A. A multistage random cluster sampling method was used to select the participants aged 7—18 years.

Associated Data

The use of references or standards might influence the chart recommendations. Associations of general characteristics with total gestational weight gain. Also, contributing to this non-linearity, we observed a greater rate of weight gain around 22—25 weeks, especially in overweight women, which might be related to the initiation of adipose tissue formation in the fetus that is known to occur between the 14th and the 23rd week of gestation [ 30 ]. Geneva: WHO.

Classification of gestational weight gain by classifications from this study and IOM, hospital-based population used as validation sample. The study was approved by the regional ethics committee. Our results indicate that obesity in the IOTF system was lower than in other classification systems. Goua, R. Table S4.

Currently, in a population of healthy Ukrainian children, the acceleration of the growth rate begins in girls aged 8 years 3 months and for boys aged 10 years 3 months. An Pediatr Barc; Chiumello, and S. Mistry and S. Figure 5.

MeSH terms

Inclusion criteria were: obtaining informed consent from parents or guardians, fr in the selected schools, a functional state that allow for self-maintenance of a standing position, not taking medication affecting body mass, and an age between 7 and 17 years old. Of the remainder, women Assessments of height, body mass, and BMI of participants were performed. Sensitivity Analyses.

Cole TJ, Lobstein T. Food Nutr Bull ;25 Suppl 1 :S Data Availability The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article. This suggests that the problem of obesity and overweight affects Ukrainian adolescents to a lesser extent than the WHO reference population.

To complement the growth standards for under-five children, WHO developed a growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. When analyzing the annual increases in body height, it was found that the periods of the highest annual growth for boys are from 12 years 7 months to 13 years 8 months and the annual increase in this period is on average 7. The health and well-being of children from a given nation reflect both its state of socioeconomic development and the quality of the healthcare system [ 1 ]. The opposite situation occurs in the case of older participants from about age of 13 years for boys and 11 years for girls. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Due to the phenomenon of the secular trend, population standards need to be updated every years [ 13 ]. Since their release inthe standards have been widely implemented globally, with over countries thus far having adopted them

Background

No sampling or analytical weight were applied to our data. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Stat Med.

Growth references presented are based on a representative sample of 13, school-age children and adolescents, including 6, boys and 7, girls. For the 85th and 97th percentiles, the values were higher for the Ukrainian population between 7 years and around Send this to a friend Your email Recipient email Send Cancel. Sociodemographic and economic determinants of overweight and obesity for public-school children in Geneva state, Switzerland: A cross-sectional study.

Overall, the median maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and total gestational weight gain were Bearinger et al. Santos, S. Gen3G The authors acknowledge the support form clinical and research staff from blood sampling in pregnancy clinic at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke CHUS for their help in recruitment, and the CHUS biomedical laboratory for performing assays. PLoS Med. Andegiorgish, J.

BioMed Research International

Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more. Using curves modeled with LMS, the mean annual increases in body height were also determined between 7 and 18 years of age. Kelishadi, M.

Arch Dis Child ; Prevalence of wasting among under 6-month-old infants in developing countries and implications of new case definitions using WHO referece standards: a secondary data analysis. Obesity, as a complex disorder, is strongly related to lifestyle and associated with age, sex, family income, and urbanization. At the 3rd percentile, the curves are similar; however, a slightly lower value in the Ukrainian population indicates that the prevalence of underweight is higher than in the WHO reference population. Am J Clin Nutr ; Figure 2.

Figure 1. The level of the 3rd, 85th, and 97th percentile using cut-off point recommendations of the International Obesity Task Force [ 15 ] and the results obtained using LMS curves were compared with analogous values given by the WHO [ 16 ] graphically for both boys and girls. External link. The upward skewness of these references results in an underestimation of overweight and obesity and an overestimation of undernutrition e. Therefore, early diagnosis of childhood obesity is essential to implementation of treatment. Bull World Health Organ ;

Maydannyk, N. To date, growth centiles of children and adolescents have not been created in Ukraine. Obesity, as a complex disorder, is strongly related to lifestyle and associated with age, sex, family income, and urbanization.

All classifications were made taking into account sex and age in months of the children Table 2. Arch Latinoam Nutr. Cubic splines smoothing on gestational age was also used for the S-curve, L-curve, and T-curve. Sensitivity Analyses.

Table S8. In other words, poor physical performance may only arise after the development of low muscle mass, reduced strength, or higher adiposity. Body mass index reference curves for the ukraine studies in various groups and countries children and youth from France, Greece, Canada, Malaysia, Brazil, Mexico also showed significant differences in the use of different BMI classifications, in a similar way as the current study, [ 17 — 23 ]. DOI: At the 3rd percentile, the curves are similar; however, a slightly lower value in the Ukrainian population indicates that the prevalence of underweight is higher than in the WHO reference population. Sign in to save your search Sign in to your personal account.

  • Gestational weight measurements per participating cohort and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. Am J Epidemiol.

  • It is important to note that, in preschool-age children, weight-for-length below two cjrves of age and height above two years of age are also valid indicators for classifying young children as overweight and obese, and can be used instead of BMI-for-age as they yield very similar results 1. Prevalence of wasting among under 6-month-old infants in developing countries and implications of new case definitions using WHO growth standards: a secondary data analysis.

  • Second, the analyses did not measure changes in the association of gestational weight gain with adverse outcomes over time. The pattern of maternal weight gain in women with good pregnancy outcomes.

  • Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated risk factors among school children and adolescents in Tianjin, China.

  • Epidemiological research has demonstrated that obesity and low levels of physical activity contribute significantly to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. For example, exact ages of 7.

Chiumello, and S. Optimal gestational weight gain for body mass index categories. Children who have excessive body weight stay obese or overweight in adolescence, and those whose weight is healthy do not become obese [ 22 ]. Santos 56Henriette A. The characteristics of height, weight, and BMI with regard to sex are presented in Table 1.

Accepted 28 Oct According to Rokholm et al. In its favour, increased BMI-for-age in childhood and adolescence is associated with higher percentages of body fat and known risk factors for cardiovascular disease Moura, W. Please review our privacy policy.

Prevalence of wasting among under 6-month-old infants in developing countries and implications of new case definitions using WHO growth standards: a secondary data analysis. Select a page. Cole, M.

Being underweight among ccurves and adolescents is associated with an increased susceptibility to fat accumulation, lower fat oxidation, lower energy expenditure, a higher risk of insulin resistance in adulthood, dyslipidemia, and hypertension [ 18 ]. In addition, their mothers followed healthy practices such as breastfeeding and not smoking during and after pregnancy. Deshmukh-Taskar, T. Special Issues.

Quiz Ref ID This study pooled individual participant data from 25 pregnancy and birth cohorts from Europe and North America to assess associations of the amount of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes according to baseline weight status of underweight, normal weight, overweight, obesity grade 1, obesity grade 2, and obesity grade 3. View author publications. Classification of gestational weight gain by classifications from this study and IOM. Results from these studies showed the strong influence of pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI on gestational weight gain. Our results suggest that the choice of a BMI reference can significantly influence the decision to provide clinical advice or treatment, as well as estimates of the health resources required to counter underweight, overweight and obesity.

The test was performed without footwear, in underwear, after emptying the bladder. Somatic growth of children can curevs used as an indicator of their health, nutritional status, and living standards [ 2 ]. Obesity indicators and cardiometabolic status in 4-y-old children. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors.

  • Schienkiewitz, and H.

  • In this regard they are similar to growing numbers of populations with increasingly diverse ethnicities.

  • Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape. Associations of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain by classifications from this study and IOM with adverse maternal and infant outcomes eFigure 3.

  • A potential approach to overcoming this flaw would be to use lower cut-offs to screen for overweight and obesity The study was approved by the regional ethics committee.

Although differences in body composition among ethnicities may exist, definitions were not excluded based on ethnicity to ensure our findings are inclusive and can inform future research regarding performance bldy each published definition, a similar approach to others Batsis et al. Principal investigator: Prof. The models for the different maternal pre-pregnancy BMI groups were fitted with different internal breakpoints and degrees of freedom for the curves. The examinations were carried out in the offices of school nurses in the morning. INMA-Valencia The authors would particularly like to thank all the participants for their generous collaboration. Table S8.

Jornal de Pediatria. Curvess references presented are based on a representative sample of 13, school-age children and adolescents, including 6, boys and 7, girls. Socioeconomic inequality in childhood obesity and its determinants in Iran: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition. Table 1. Use of new World Health Organization child growth standards to assess how infant malnutrition relates to breastfeeding and mortality.

Age: 61 months to 19 years 2,3 Indicator and cut-off. Rigorously standardized methods of data collection and procedures for data management across sites yielded high-quality data 11, Secular trend in body height and weight of Australian children and adolescents. Int J Ped Obes ;5 6

Monteiro, E. Somatic growth of children can be used as an indicator of their health, nutritional status, and living standards [ 2 ]. Flint, J. It was thus decided that a growth reference should be constructed for this age group using available historical data Comparison of the 85th and 97th percentiles of BMI for Ukraine with data provided by the WHO showed that among the younger Ukrainian population between 7 and To complement the growth standards for under-five children, WHO developed a growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents.

Create a personal account to register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. Participants sat in a straight-backed chair with feet on the the ukraine and upper arms close to the body with the elbow of the dominant hand at 90 degrees flexion. When analyzing the annual increases in body height, it was found that the periods of the highest annual growth for boys are from 12 years 7 months to 13 years 8 months and the annual increase in this period is on average 7. Older Ukrainian population has lower prevalence of obesity. All students from the selected schools were invited to participate in the study, and 19, parental approvals were received for participation of their children in the study.

Absolute risk reductions for refegence associations of gestational weight gain categories with any adverse outcome per maternal clinical body mass index group. Figure 1. Effects of interventions in pregnancy on maternal weight and obstetric outcomes: meta-analysis of randomised evidence. An underestimation of pre-pregnancy weight might lead to a misclassification of women in the different BMI groups and to an overestimation of weight gain at each specific week of gestation. Ethics Written informed assent was obtained from parents before participation in the study.

Ultimately, the study group consisted of 13, children and adolescents aged 7. Published online Nov The resulting sex difference of Tinggaard, L. Use of the new World Health Organization child growth standards to describe longitudinal growth of breastfed rural Bangladeshi infants and young children.

Black, C. The main aim of this project was to develop Ukrainian growth centile charts of body mass and BMI for the developmental age population. Age: Birth to 60 months 1,3 Indicator and cut-off. Body height was assessed using a measuring instrument attached to the scales, in a standing upright position without footwear. The test was performed without footwear, in underwear, after emptying the bladder.

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For the ukraine of aging and obesity are both mediated in part through changes in body composition i. For children, the risk of obesity is associated with the educational and BMI levels of their parents, high birth weight, living in a urban area, and eating food that was not prepared at home [ 24 ]. Results Subject characteristics Characteristics of the participating pregnancy cohorts are given in Table 1. Abstract Introduction. Participants completed a 4-meter gait speed test to assess physical performance. Sarcopenic obesity: the confluence of two epidemics. Classification of gestational weight gain by classifications from this study and IOM eTable

Among women categorized as overweight, the optimal gestational weight gain range was 2. The ORs and ARRs body mass index reference curves for the ukraine each gestational bdy gain category used to determine the optimal ranges appear in eTable 8 and eTable 9 in the Supplementrespectively. Results for the validation sample showed that the discriminative performance of the optimal gestational weight gain ranges developed in this study and the weight gain ranges from the NAM guidelines were consistent with findings in the main study sample range for AUROC, 0. The constructed reference growth charts are a benchmark for following secular trends in Ukraine and are also an optimal clinical tool for health care.

This investigation compared definitions of sarcopenic obesity in a large cohort of older Canadian adults and explored the relationship of sarcopenic obesity with grip strength and gait speed. A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy. Magnin, L. Table S1. However, the prevalence of this condition — and the relationship to physical performance parameters — varies across definitions. View Article Google Scholar 3.

DOI: Additionally, we compared these charts to those obtained inpregnant women from 26 cohorts who had uncomplicated term pregnancies. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this study was higher among boys compared to girls.

Cawthon, P. Sarcopenia, weight loss, and nutritional frailty ukraiine the elderly. Selected percentiles of weight gain for gestational age in women without any pregnancy complication for maternal pre-pregnancy underweight anormal weight boverweight cobesity grade 1 dobesity grade 2 e and obesity grade 3 f. According to the IOTF criterion,

Related articles. References S. Reasons for this lack of knowledge include the rapid changes in somatic growth, problems of dealing with variations in maturation, and difficulties in separating normal variations from those associated with health risks. Grajda, B. Send this to a friend Your email Recipient email Send Cancel.

In many developed msss, the secular height trend has reached the plateau phase, while average body mass continues to grow [ 12 ]. Obesity and overweight defined using the WHO Body mass index reference curves for the ukraine cut-offs identify children with higher metabolic and vascular risk, while emphasising the importance of preventing overweight and obesity in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk. This phenomenon, observed over the last years, concerns obtaining higher values of final body dimensions between successive generations [ 9 ]. Prevalence of wasting among under 6-month-old infants in developing countries and implications of new case definitions using WHO growth standards: a secondary data analysis. The aim of these assessments is to obtain a number of reliable anthropometric measurements and compare them to a reference system population standardswhich reflects the normal variability in relation to age and gender.

Publications

Besides being more accurate for predicting mortality riskusing these standards results in shorter duration of treatment, higher rates of recovery, fewer deaths, and reduced loss to follow-up or need for inpatient care Figure 1. Niklasson, and J. Richter, and I. Although there is some reluctance to describe children as obese on the basis of BMI alone, i.

Material and Methods. Kulaga Z. The constructed reference growth charts are a benchmark for following secular trends in Ukraine and are also an optimal clinical tool for health care. Figure 4. Monteiro, E.

Morales, S. Sign in to make a comment Sign in to your personal account. The aim of these assessments is to obtain a number of reliable anthropometric measurements and compare them to a reference system population standardswhich reflects the normal variability in relation to age and gender. The models followed a 2-level hierarchical structure with participants level 1 nested within cohorts level 2. View at: Google Scholar T.

BioMed Research International

The general health status of each participant was evaluated by a physician. Material and Methods. No research to date has systematically compared both the classification of underweight and overweight in Ukraine using the three international sources examined here. Perera, PhD, principal investigator.

  • No sampling or analytical weight were applied to our data.

  • They fill the growth-curve gap and provide an appropriate reference for the 5 to 19 years age group.

  • Participants also self-identified their ethnicity or cultural background their ancestors belonged.

  • These reference charts can be used to classify weight gain independently of gestational age in etiological research focused on maternal and offspring consequences of weight gain.

Leong, D. Several definitions of sarcopenic obesity use BMI to define obesity. Therefore, optimal gestational weight gain ranges should account for prepregnancy BMI. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Data were collected between and

Van Buuren, S. Figure 2. Ukraibe the range of cultures, behaviors, clinical practices, and traditions, which can strongly influence gestational weight gain, we did not observe differences in the patterns of weight gain between cohorts and countries. View Article Google Scholar Anthropometrics and Body Composition Height and weight were measured using standard procedures during a visit to the nearest data collection site. Sign in to make a comment Sign in to your personal account.

We used a generalized linear mixed model with a binominal distribution and logit link. The gestational weight gain ranges defined in this study and the NAM ranges appear in eTable 10 in the Supplement. Table 2. Sex- and gestational age—adjusted SD scores for birth weight were calculated using a Northern European reference chart.

Bibl Nutr Dieta ; Growth curves for school-age children and adolescents. Reference growth curves for height, weight, and BMI that were constructed from measurements of 13, school-age children and adolescents allow for early detection of disorders in physical development and nutrition. Schaffrath Rosario, A. The implementation of the standards developed in other countries could have considerable clinical implications and result in unnecessary referrals to pediatric departments as a larger number of Ukrainian children would be considered abnormal.

The BMI centile values of 3rd, 85th, and 97th centile being cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity, respectively were also compared with the same values provided by the World Health Rdference WHO. Fredriks, S. Obesity is a serious problem in both developed and developing countries [ 23 ]. Although standards and references both serve as a basis for comparison, each enables a different interpretation. Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Jeannot, P. This suggests that the problem of obesity and overweight affects Ukrainian adolescents to a lesser extent than the WHO reference population.

Excessive body weight is a growing public health problem in many countries and has body mass index reference curves for the ukraine consequences due to higher morbidity [ 30 ], negative impact on quality of life [ 31 bpdy, and higher healthcare expenditures [ 32 ]. Currently, in a population of healthy Ukrainian children, the acceleration of the growth rate begins in girls aged 8 years 3 months and for boys aged 10 years 3 months. National Center for Health Statistics. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Gestational weight measurements per participating cohort and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The ranges would be slightly broader if optimal gestational weight gain was defined as no increased risk for adverse outcomes, which includes both a protective association and a null association. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index BMI category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Am J Epidemiol. Purcell 1,2,3Michelle Mackenzie 1Thiago G. Study participants were drawn from a cohort study funded by the Medical Research Council and the Dunhill Medical Trust. Gynecol Obstet Invest.

Although there is some reluctance to describe children as obese on the basis of Curvess alone, i. China journal. Epidemiological research has demonstrated that obesity and low levels of physical activity contribute significantly to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Height, weight, body mass index and pubertal development references for children of Moroccan origin in The Netherlands. Open Obesity Journal. Figure 3. Chiumello, and S.

Luo, A. Underweight is often viewed as a sign of malnutrition and poverty in developing countries and in developed countries, it may be associated with eating disorders. Abstract Introduction. Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico.

The highest absolute risks were Figure 1. No exclusions were made based on previous pregnancy or birth complications.

There are no growth references in Ukraine that would allow for referencing the results of a child's development assessment. The upward skewness of these references results in an underestimation of overweight and obesity and an overestimation of undernutrition e. The implementation of the standards developed in other countries could have considerable clinical implications and result in unnecessary referrals to pediatric departments as a larger number of Ukrainian children would be considered abnormal. An Pediatr Barc; It was thus decided that a growth reference should be constructed for this age group using available historical data Allison, D.

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There were large differences in assessing underweight. Grajda, B. This phenomenon, observed over the last years, concerns obtaining higher values of final body dimensions between successive generations [ 9 ]. Project Viva: We thank the mothers, children, and families for their ongoing participation. Prepregnancy BMI is significantly associated with pregnancy complications and offspring obesity and also is associated with gestational weight gain.

  • Contact us Submission enquiries: bmcmedicineeditorial biomedcentral.

  • Click here for additional data file. Epidemiologic Reviews.

  • Height, weight, body mass index and pubertal development references for children of Moroccan origin in The Netherlands.

  • Epidemiological research has demonstrated that obesity and low levels of physical activity contribute significantly to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease.

  • Our results indicate the need for widespread use of at least 1 reference for comparison between populations. Using genetic variation to explore the causal effect of maternal pregnancy adiposity on future offspring adiposity: a Mendelian randomisation study.

The characteristics of height, weight, and BMI with regard to sex are presented in Table 1. It is known that measurement error of a single dial measurement is about 0. High adiposity and low muscularity was present only in a minority of individuals 8. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children in Thessaloniki, Greece. In many developed countries, the secular height trend has reached the plateau phase, while average body mass continues to grow [ 12 ].

Tinggaard, L. Journal of Nutrition ; Maydannyk V. The secular growth trend shows a similar pattern around the world, although its time and velocity may vary [ 11 ]. Open Obesity Journal.

Mistry and S. For example, exact ages of 7. Gurzkowska, E. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Forhan M.

In the studied population, They also demonstrate that healthy children from around the world who fhe raised in healthy environments and follow recommended feeding practices have strikingly similar patterns of growth. Fudvoye J. Although standards and references both serve as a basis for comparison, each enables a different interpretation. Growth reference charts for use in the United Kingdom. The use of anthropometry in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Abstract Introduction.

Swedish population-based longitudinal reference values from birth to 18 years of age for height, weight and head circumference. The individual inclusion criteria were: no known health or environmental constraints to growth, mothers willing to follow MGRS feeding recommendations i. Sheidaei, S. Reference growth curves for height, weight, and BMI that were constructed from measurements of 13, school-age children and adolescents allow for early detection of disorders in physical development and nutrition. The study was approved by the regional ethics committee. Fredriks A. We speculate that the increase in BMI in the younger Ukrainian population is caused by an increase in the socioeconomic development of Ukraine.

Among women categorized as underweight, the optimal gestational weight gain range was Monthly increases in height for children and adolescents aged Raina, P.

Ukraone, and K. Statistical Analysis. International gestational weight gain charts for specific pre-pregnancy BMI groups are important to improve clinical monitoring and risk selection of pregnant women. Growth reference 5—19 years. Marchand, C. Absolute risk reductions for the associations of gestational weight gain categories with any adverse outcome per maternal clinical body mass index group eTable Generation XXI: We gratefully acknowledge the families for their kindness, all the members of the research team for their enthusiasm and perseverance, and the participating hospitals and their staff for their help and support.

Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body referece index and head circumference. To date, growth centiles of children and adolescents have not been created in Ukraine. Article Google Scholar Download references. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. A new chart to monitor weight gain during pregnancy. FP Perera; co-investigator: Prof. View at: Google Scholar J.

In other words, poor physical performance may only arise after the development of low muscle mass, reduced strength, or higher adiposity. Data were fkr cross-sectionally since taking the correlation between repeated observations of the same individual into account seems to have negligible effects on the location and precision of the centiles [ 13 ]. At least The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Ukraine. The authors would like to acknowledge the Raine Study participants and their families.

  • These measurements were made in compliance with WHO recommendations, with the students in their underwear and without shoes [ 14 ].

  • Figure 5. Pediatrics ;e

  • Table S

  • Revised 17 Oct SWS: We are grateful to the women of Southampton who gave their time to take part in the survey and to the research nurses and other staff who collected and processed the data.

  • The average age of the entire sample was

Food Nutr Bull ;25 Suppl 1 :S Figure 5. Recognising the limitations of existing reference curves e. Obesity Reviews. Obesity, as a complex disorder, is strongly related to lifestyle and associated with age, sex, family income, and urbanization. Introduction Childhood is a fundamental phase shaping human development.

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Shields M, Tremblay MS. All authors read and approved fog final manuscript. Of all outcomes separately, the absolute risk was highest for small size for gestational age highest risk: Arch Latinoam Nutr. Approximately 30, children and adolescents were selected from 50 primary, secondary and high schools from 20 districts of Ukraine. Deshmukh-Taskar, T. Tinggaard, L.

Background Gestational weight gain is an important predictor of adverse maternal and child health outcomes [ 1 ]. For example, using cut-points proposed by Baumgartner et al. The authors thank all the families for their participation in the GINIplus study. Twelfth, for some outcomes, discriminative performance in the validation sample was lower than in the main sample, potentially resulting from overfitting of the models in the main sample.

Furthermore, sarcopenic obesity was frequently associated with low handgrip strength, but not slow gait speed. Box-Cox t model specifications for each maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The medical history of participants in the study, including previous and current diseases, as well as medications used, was obtained from the parents of the examined. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

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