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For adults older than mortality is lowest among individuals who are moderately overweight – About Adult BMI

Some 15 million older adults — people over the age of 51 — are obese.

Ethan Walker
Friday, October 14, 2016
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  • Because calculation requires only height and weight, BMI is an inexpensive and easy tool. Van Itallie TB.

  • Arch Intern Med ; — Thus, both obesity and underweight were related to an increase in all-cause mortality among adult Chinese people in the Kailuan cohort.

  • Preoperative nutritional status and outcome of elective total hip replacement. Mortality was lowest among men and women with BMIs from

  • Am J Public Health.

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Create a personal account to register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. The study did find that people 65 and over had no greater mortality risk even at high obesity. Relative risk was adjusted for factors such as age, serum lipid levels ie, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterolhistory of smoking and drinking, and physical activity, as well as a medical history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Childhood Obesity: A lifelong threat to health 3. During this period, there were deaths, which included men and women.

Still, death is not everything. At risk for chronic conditions Obesity has been called an epidemic in the United States. Obese adults age 51 and older are less likely than non-obese older adults to exercise vigorously. Maybe such seeming contradictions made sense against the societal inconsistencies of that time.

Protein—energy undernutrition PEU is defined as the presence of clinical physical signs such as wasting, low BMI and biochemical albumin or other serum protein evidence of insufficient intake. However, the relationship between body weight and mortality remains controversial in the geriatric population. Nutrition therapy may be a key element in managing many of the most common and important disorders of older persons including hypertension, congestive heart failure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, malignancies, and renal failure. Among adults with insulin-treated diabetes, a high prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed, and baseline BMI category was inversely associated with CVD incidence and all-cause death during follow-up.

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Institutional sign in: OpenAthens Shibboleth. About this article. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. Numerous studies have associated low serum albumin in hospitalized older persons measured at various times during the hospitalization with in-hospital complications, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, in-hospital mortality, and increased mortality at 90 days and at 1 year Agarwal et al.

JHK and KH are the guarantors of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. For this reason we are not authorized to extend the results to community-dwelling elderly individuals. Excess mortality among persons with type 2 diabetes. This book addresses these questions, provides recommendations for nutrition services for the elderly, and considers how the coverage policy should be approached and practiced. Malnutrition and obesity are both common among Americans over age

Page 58 Share Cite. Serum albumin and prealbumin as predictors of clinical outcomes of hospitalized elderly nursing home residents. Article Google Scholar Page 46 Share Cite. Health implications of obesity.

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Association between body-mass index and risk of death in more than 1 million Asians. Home Page Eho Coronavirus U. Keywords: all-cause mortality, body mass index, Chinese, obesity, obesity paradox. All the individuals were measured while they were wearing light clothing without shoes and hats. Older men and women have similar rates of obesity.

An individual is considered to have a disability if he or she has difficulty with tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing — tasks known as activities of daily living ADLs. Nearly 40 percent of Americans age 51 and older are overweight. Mortality was lowest among men and women with BMIs from Am J Epidemiol ; —

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The results of this large observational study suggest that a very low BMI has an important prognostic implication for patients in an acute care setting, independent of age, sex, and other nonnutritional risk factors. In addition to having difficulty with ADLs, or activities of daily living, older obese adults are more likely than older non-obese adults to have difficulty or be unable to participate in activities such as walking any distance, going shopping, or attending movies, parties, or other social events see Figure 5. Natural cubic spline functions were used to model the association between BMI and all-cause mortality. Visit profiles to view data profiles on chronic and disabling conditions and on young retirees and older workers. Anthropometric measurements Height was measured to the nearest 0. After exclusion, analyses were confined to theparticipants

General and abdominal adiposity and risk of death in Europe. Additionally, those subjects older than ffor years are retire. Studies of illness in the aged: the index of ADL—a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. Study designs and population The Kailuan study is a prospective cohort study and workforce survey. Reuse this content.

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Childhood Obesity: A lifelong threat to health 3. We prospectively examined the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality inChinese men and women who participated in the Kailuan health examination study from to and to Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account.

New York: Springer. Diabet Med. Excess mortality among persons with type 2 diabetes. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Calculate BMI by dividing weight in pounds lbs by height in inches in squared and multiplying by a conversion factor of International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

Am J Epidemiol. In addition, nursing home residents may have chronic inflammation, which complicates both the diagnosis and the management of malnutrition. Page 46 Share Cite. JHK critically edited the manuscript. An important characteristic of adiposity accompanying aging is the distribution of fat, which is more likely to be centrally distributed in older persons. Members of this population are also at increased risk of drug-induced nutritional deficiencies due to the number of prescription drugs they take.

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The overall in-hospital mortality rates were 2. Conclusions Our results suggest that BMI, a simple anthropometric measure of nutritional status, is an important predictor of mortality among young and old hospitalized patients. J Diabetes Investig. Thank you for visiting nature.

Rudman D, Feller AG. Thus, perhaps unique to the geriatric population, benefits versus risks of weight reduction should be analyzed on an individual basis. However, the relation between obesity and occurrence rates of specific diseases or overall mortality in persons over 65 years has received limited study. How is BMI calculated? Does weight loss from middle age to old age explain the inverse weight mortality relation in old age?

Risk of early mortality and cardiovascular disease according to the presence of recently diagnosed diabetes and requirement for insulin treatment: A nationwide study. Body weight variability increases dementia risk among older adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study. J Chronic Dis. Attempts have been made to apply standardized nomenclature for these syndromes Roubenoff et al. The predictive value of combined hypoalbuminemia and hypocholesterolemia in high functioning community-dwelling older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Online ahead of print. The Determine Checklist was originally devel.

Hypertension a. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Nutrition therapy may be a key element in managing many of the most common and important disorders of older persons including hypertension, congestive heart failure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, malignancies, and renal failure.

The average BMI data are consistent with good nutritional status, and no age or sex differences. However, the sex differential in all-cause mortality related to BMI may be owing to several other variables between the sexes, such as hormonal balance, environment, or inherent biological factors. The methods of the GIFA have been described in detail elsewhere. Furthermore, the finding of the high BMI associated with minimum hazard in elderly subjects supports some past findings and opposes others and, if confirmed, has important implications for geriatric clinical guidelines.

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Lee, YB. BMI is calculated the same way for both adults and children. Healthy Weight, Nutrition, and Physical Activity. Clin Orthop — Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

Related Topics. Long-term mortality and end-stage renal disease in a type 1 diabetes population diagnosed at age years in norway. Hypertension a. Our data and those of previous studies support the hypothesis that the optimal weight for longevity may be higher in older people. For example, changes in serum proteins among hospitalized older persons may be more reflective of inflammation and the acute-phase reaction than of malnutrition per se, whereas such changes may be more likely to indicate protein— energy undernutrition in community-dwelling persons.

Body mass index-related mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and heterogeneity in obesity paradox studies: a dose-response meta-analysis. Protein depletion and metabolic stress in elderly patients who have a fracture of the hip. The correlation between the BMI and body fatness is fairly strong 1,2,3,7but even if two people have the same BMI, their level of body fatness may differ We categorized BMI as lower than Table 1.

  • A longitudinal study found that several individual items of the Determine Checklist predicted 8- to year mortality, but the summary score for the entire instrument had a considerably lower predictive value than the individual items Sahyoun et al. J Bone Joint Surg —

  • Cancer: A major national concern 5.

  • J Gerontol.

  • The reference category was made up of patients with body mass indexes lower than

  • Maybe such seeming contradictions made sense against the societal inconsistencies of that time. The trend of HR values was similar in male.

Even when controlling for multiple other potential risk factors, such as comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and functional and cognitive impairment, the mortality rate among elderly patients was greatest at the lowest BMI and not at the highest BMI rankings. References 1. Of those who are working, obese adults are more likely to have missed work due to their health than non-obese workers. Medical spending for treating illnesses and symptoms related to obesity among adults of all ages who live in the community is high, accounting for 5. Still, death is not everything.

Not Available, Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry: report of a WHO expert committee. What would be the cost to Medicare of such services? Create a personal account to register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. Body weight variability increases dementia risk among older adults: a nationwide population-based cohort study. When considering mortality, the lower the albumin level, the higher is the risk of death. Nutrition and health risks in the elderly: The nutrition screening initiative. The Determine Checklist was originally devel.

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Malnutrition in the hospitalized geriatric patient. J Am Med Assoc 54— While, a person with a very high BMI e. Hospitalization for heart failure incidence according to the transition in metabolic health and obesity status: a nationwide population-based study.

Do nutrition services benefit older people in terms of morbidity, mortality, or quality of life? Weight and height were measured during the first day of hospitalization according to guidelines by de Groot and van Staveren 25 and each measure was repeated 3 times and averaged. It includes height and weight measurement and calculated BMIas well as questions about pound weight gain or loss within the prior 6 months, eating habits, living environment, and functional status. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Article Google Scholar What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status? Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.

Individuals Age hhan Years and Older. The relationship between clinical assessments of nutritional status and adverse outcomes in older hospitalized medical patients. Table 1 gives the main sociodemographic, medical, and functional characteristics of the patients, according to sex and different age groups. Cox models were adjusted for potential risk factors reported at admission: index of comorbidity, physical disability, cognitive impairment, smoking status, and alcohol abuse.

Obesity rates for older adults may be even higher in the future

Citations Baseline BMI was stratified into 4 categories, with cutoff points at Rent this article from DeepDyve. For example, obese older people with arthritis are more likely to say the condition limits their activities than non-obese adults age 51 and older.

Diabet Med. However, the findings of some epidemiological surveys that compared death rates according to BMI across age groups support the hypothesis of important prognostic implications of obesity even in older people. Would the cost be offset by reduced illness in this population? High proportion of adult cases and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus population in Korea: a nationwide study. The percentage of overweight and obese persons in the 65 to. View Large Download.

Arch Intern Med — Table 1 gives the main sociodemographic, medical, and functional characteristics of the patients, according to sex mortslity different age groups. The standard weight status categories associated with BMI ranges for adults are shown in the following table. This cross-sectional approach to assess the relationship between BMI and mortality does not provide evidence for direct causality. Protein status of general surgical patients. Epub Aug

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N Engl J Med —7. Aging, health risks, and cumulative disability. Because calculation requires only height and weight, BMI is an inexpensive and easy tool. These can be categorized as follows:.

A total of 18, patients consecutively admitted to 79 clinical centers during 5 different surveys in, and were enrolled in the present study. In that study, the annual incidence of involuntary weight loss of 4 percent or more was Switch between the Original Pageswhere you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. On the contrary, our findings support the well-established increase in the risk of death associated with malnutrition in all age groups. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. The calculation is based on the following formulas:. The effect of staffing on the quality of care at mealtime.

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Even when controlling for clinical individuaks functional variables, a low BMI remained a significant and independent predictor of shortened survival. But preventive health experts questioned Flicker's conclusions. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Kiefer, K. During this period, there were deaths, which included men and women. Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article.

Journal List Medicine Baltimore v. The study did find that people 65 and over had no greater mortality risk even at high obesity. BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 11 Published online Aug Data for the employees aged 18 to 98 years Abdominal adiposity and mortality in Chinese women. Abstract Increasing levels of obesity could compromise future gains in life expectancy in low- and high-income countries.

Hodkinson HM Evaluation of a mortqlity test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. In terms of chronic conditions, the effects of obesity are similar to the effects of 20 years of aging. Background Body mass index weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters [BMI] is known to be associated with overall mortality.

Cox models were adjusted for potential risk factors reported at admission: index of comorbidity, physical disability, cognitive impairment, smoking status, and alcohol abuse. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein and transfused into vacuum tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the morning ate an overnight fasting period. For overwwight and women with BMIs that were classified as normal, the risk of death increased as BMI decreased so sharply that the estimated risk of death for men and women at the lower end of the normal range was almost double the risk in those who were overweight. These data are consistent with previous studies in different settings 69 - 111619 that evaluated mortality rates among geriatric populations as a function of BMI. However, the findings of some epidemiological surveys that compared death rates according to BMI across age groups support the hypothesis of important prognostic implications of obesity even in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc. Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease.

Eur Heart J. Aer weight and mortality: a year follow-up of middle-aged men. Long-term mortality and end-stage renal disease in a type 1 diabetes population diagnosed at age years in norway. These can be categorized as follows:. Protein depletion and metabolic stress in elderly patients who have a fracture of the hip. These categories are the same for men and women of all body types and ages.

The Mini-Nutritional Assessment MNA is an item instrument, requiring 20 forr to complete, which incorporates several anthropometric measures, dietary intake questions, and health and functional status questions Vellas et al. Published : 03 August Correlates of hypoalbuminemia in community-dwelling older persons. How is BMI used? The correlation between the BMI and body fatness is fairly strong 1,2,3,7but even if two people have the same BMI, their level of body fatness may differ J Am Med Assoc 54—

The aim of this large prospective study was inxividuals examine the association between BMI and all-cause mortality to guide public health recommendations. It is notable that obese adults age 51 to 69 experience symptoms at rates that are more similar to adults 70 and older than to those in their age group who are not obese. An individual is considered to have a disability if he or she has difficulty with tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing — tasks known as activities of daily living ADLs. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Methods We analyzed data from a large collaborative observational study group, the Italian Group of Pharmacoepidemiology in the Elderly GIFAthat collected data on hospitalized patients. Thus, both obesity and underweight were related to an increase in all-cause mortality among adult Chinese people in the Kailuan cohort. The World Health Organisation defines weight categories using the body mass index — a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in metres. Maybe such seeming contradictions made sense against the societal inconsistencies of that time. Of those who are working, obese adults are more likely to have missed work due to their health than non-obese workers. For men and women with BMIs that were classified as normal, the risk of death increased as BMI decreased so sharply that the estimated risk of death for men and women at the lower end of the normal range was almost double the risk in those who were overweight. All the individuals were measured while they were wearing light clothing without shoes and hats.

Obesity has been defined variably by different organizations. Combinations of these 7 mprtality are in accordance with the cutoff points proposed by the World Health Organization: a BMI between Article Google Scholar 7. On This Page. Cardiovasc Diabetol. Serum albumin and prealbumin as predictors of clinical outcomes of hospitalized elderly nursing home residents. Rent this article from DeepDyve.

  • For example, changes in serum proteins among hospitalized older persons may be more reflective of inflammation and the acute-phase reaction than of malnutrition per se, whereas such changes may be more likely to indicate protein— energy undernutrition in community-dwelling persons.

  • Clinical characteristics After exclusion, analyses were confined to theparticipants This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

  • Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more. Health implications of obesity.

Visit NAP. A total of 18, a,ong consecutively admitted to 79 clinical centers during 5 different surveys in, and were enrolled in the present study. Although this overview focuses on older persons, other Medicare beneficiaries, particularly those with end-stage renal disease, also have high rates of nutritional disorders. J Am Geriatr Soc. More recently, it has also been recognized that this threshold may be too high, even among hospitalized patients Del Savio et al.

Body Mass Index BMI expresses the relationship of weight-to-height and is used to screen and monitor the risk of obesity. Rural and Urban Health: Health care service use differs 8. The optimal weight is a BMI of Flicker, a professor of geriatric medicine and executive director of the Western Australian Centre for Health and Ageing, admitted he wasn't sure why excess weight protected older adults. Multivariate adjustment for other risk factors strengthened the association between severe malnutrition and mortality but did not substantially modify the results. Table 1. All rights reserved.

Some groups are more likely to be obese

Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. For each patient a ovetweight was completed at admission and updated daily by a study physician who received specific training for the study. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Conclusions Our results suggest that BMI, a simple anthropometric measure of nutritional status, is an important predictor of mortality among young and old hospitalized patients. These are described in greater detail in chapter 4.

Waaler HT Height, weight and mortality: the Norwegian experience. Sincerates of obesity have increased dramati-cally. We observed markedly greater mortality rates in the group with the lowest BMI. Int J Obes Lond ; 38 — We also find that although the probability of experiencing obesity-related chronic diseases among individuals with high BMI is larger for the U. Previous Profiles in the new series include: 1. Miss Scheel, however, was hardly model-thin.

  • Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts.

  • Even when controlling for multiple other potential risk factors, such as comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and functional and cognitive impairment, the mortality rate among elderly patients was greatest at the lowest BMI and not at the highest BMI rankings. Body weight and mortality among women.

  • A total of 18, patients consecutively admitted to 79 clinical centers during 5 different surveys in, and were enrolled in the present study.

  • What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status? The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of age on the relationship between BMI and mortality.

Figure 3. Disability rates are higher among adults who are obese An individual is considered to have a disability if he or she has difficulty with tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing — wno known as activities of daily living ADLs. Hodkinson HM Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. An individual is considered to have a disability if he or she has difficulty with tasks such as eating, bathing, dressing — tasks known as activities of daily living ADLs. Negative attitudes about the obese are common, even among health care professionals and the overweight themselves. Am J Public Health.

View Large Download. Studies of illness in the aged: the index of ADL—a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. Age Ageing. All rights reserved. Differences in categorical parameters according to age and sex were tested using the Fisher exact test. Gender differential in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.

Being underweight, on the other hand, can lead to an increased risk of mortality. Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more. Nutritional assessment: a primary component of multidimensional geriatric assessment in the acute care setting.

In general, a person who has a high BMI is likely to have body fatness and would be considered to be overweight or obese, but this may not apply to athletes. Is BMI interpreted the same way for children and teens as it is for adults? Looking for other ways to read this? Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more.

Impact of nutrition status on morbidity and mortality in a select population of geriatric rehabilitation patients. Overweeight on the risks associated with obesity in older persons are less consistent than for those with undernutrition. While, a person with a very high BMI e. Why is BMI used to measure overweight and obesity? Epub Aug

We also find that although the probability of experiencing obesity-related chronic diseases among individuals with high BMI is larger for the U. Work is another activity which appears to be affected. The authors report no conflicts of interest. For men and women with BMIs that were classified as normal, the risk of death increased as BMI decreased so sharply that the estimated risk of death for men and women at the lower end of the normal range was almost double the risk in those who were overweight.

Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our individusls. A review of 14 surveys of nutritional status conducted among chronically institutionalized older persons concluded that only 5 to 18 percent of nursing home residents had energy intakes below their. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Hospitalization for heart failure incidence according to the transition in metabolic health and obesity status: a nationwide population-based study.

Pi-Sunyer FX. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U. J Am Coll Nutr — What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status? Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Furthermore, the finding of the high BMI associated with minimum hazard in elderly subjects supports some past findings and opposes others and, if confirmed, has important implications for geriatric clinical guidelines. Purchase access Subscribe to the journal.

High proportion of adult cases and prevalence of loest syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus population in Korea: a nationwide study. At baseline, Of the 59 male patients age 65 or older in the study, 61 percent met at least two of these criteria, compared to 28 percent of the 93 younger patients admitted during the same time period Bienia et al. Some measures of nutritional status vary in their degree of specificity for malnutrition across care settings.

MeSH terms

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Chronic renal insufficiency b. People who have obesity are at increased risk for many diseases and health conditions, including the following: 10, 17,

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Rates of chronic conditions are higher among obese adults than mortalith their non-obese counterparts, but the differences between groups are particularly great for adults ages 51 to 69 see Figure 7. Study designs and population The Kailuan study is a prospective cohort study and workforce survey. The age of employees was between 18 and 98 mean of

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IOM Institute of Medicine. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its lverweight of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Silver Spring14 3pp. Get This Book. Results At baseline, Conclusions Our results suggest that BMI, a simple anthropometric measure of nutritional status, is an important predictor of mortality among young and old hospitalized patients.

Still, death is not everything. Kiefer, K. For thaan patient a questionnaire was completed at admission and updated daily by a study physician who received specific training for the study. Cox models were adjusted for potential risk factors reported at admission: index of comorbidity, physical disability, cognitive impairment, smoking status, and alcohol abuse. The obesity paradox.

The obesity paradox. From June to September and June to Septemberthe Tangshan Kailuan Company sponsored two health examination studies for allemployees. Our data and those of previous studies support the hypothesis that the optimal weight for longevity may be higher in older people.

Enumeration data were expressed aong a percentage. Articles from Medicine are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer Health. Further, Obesity may have a different influence on all-cause mortality in both sexes. Abstract Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease; however, the relation between body mass index BMI and the risk of all-cause mortality is controversial. On average, the women were older than the men

Am J Med — Download references. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Pi-Sunyer FX. Even when controlling for clinical and functional variables, a low BMI remained a significant and independent predictor of shortened survival. Failure to thrive in older adults.

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