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Overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett: Overweight cats: prevalence and risk factors

The most common reasons to feed a dry food diet were: perceived health benefits Feeding dry.

Ethan Walker
Saturday, September 17, 2016
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  • The feeding practices and structure questionnaire: construction and initial validation in a sample of Australian first-time mothers and their 2-year olds. Overweight and obesity are also important risk factors for diabetes mellitus DM in cats [ 4567 ].

  • These interventions could include more intensive monitoring of body weight and BCS, the use of growth curves to try and identify early rapid growth, and recommendation of diets formulated especially for neutered animals

  • Neutering was a risk factor found only in the medical records cohort, because almost all cats in the questionnaire cohort were neutered, making comparisons between neutering statuses unfeasible.

The individual risk factor causes

Mother and child personality traits associated with common feeding strategies and child body mass index. Unfortunately, no such questionnaire has been developed for veterinary use. By using the site you are agreeing to this as outlined in our privacy notice and cookie policy. Laflamme D. Comp Hum Behav.

One thousand overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett hundred sixty-seven respondents failed to complete every question; their responses were therefore voerweight from all analyses. All three models confirmed that cats purchased from a registered breeder were at greatly decreased risk of being overweight, when compared with cats acquired from all other sources. Of the owner-related risk factors assessed by the questionnaire, personality level of conscientiousnesspreference for immediate vs. Microrim Inc. When BCS results using only the visual scoring method were used as the dependent variable, both weighing the amount of food dispensed, and adjusting the amount fed in response to changes in BCS were protective.

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This website requires cookies, and the limited processing of your personal data in order to function. Table 3. Google Preview. There was significant overlap overweivht results from all three analyses. These data relate to two populations of overweight cats, i. Cats that were housed either exclusively outdoors, or outdoors with restricted indoor access, were much less likely to be overweight or obese, when compared with cats housed indoors only, or predominantly indoors.

When BCS results using only the visual scoring method were overwekght as the dependent variable, both weighing the amount of food dispensed, and adjusting the amount fed in response to changes in BCS were protective. A possible explanation for this is that the rewards of preventing feline obesity are, indeed, likely to be delayed. Elfhag K, Morey LC. Affiliations 1 author 1. Citing articles via Google Scholar. Caregiver's feeding styles questionnaire. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Acta Vet Scand. Markwell P. Multiple, recently published studies prevaence that in developed countries, anywhere from These data relate to two populations of overweight cats, i. The online questionnaire Supplementary Material A contained 27 questions or measures in eight parts, which were designed to assess owner personality, self-control and attachment to their cat, feeding practices, cat health and body condition, and owner socio-demographics.

The main reasons for this were hunting and eating prey Statistical Analysis The primary purpose of the analyses was to determine which explanatory variables risk factors scarlett associated with obesity in cats. The questionnaire was posted in different social media groups relating to pet ownership, and a range of hobby groups for example, sports groups, craft groups, gardening and cooking groups, and music-related groups. Types of commercial cat foods offered to cats by body condition 1. Recent history Saved searches. This misclassification is a recognizable source of information bias; there is a risk this may conceal associations of interest. Thirdly, increased activity or exercise due to outdoor housing may also play a small role in moderating appetite and food intake, and increasing energy expenditure

Part Five of the questionnaire was the Consideration of Future Consequences CFC scale, which was originally designed to assess the extent to which people emphasize short-term or long-term consequences. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. The datasets used and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. However, inactivity was associated with a higher risk of being overweight.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Of those, NS, not significant. This may simply be a result of the larger number of participants in this study, and riwk greater power to detect a true effect. There is often a very large temporal distance between the period when obesity typically develops in cats early life and the period of time when owners may see the benefit of earlier restraint absence of a particular disease, for example.

  • Cat owners that scored highly with respect to indulgent feeding perform similar actions, such as treat feeding, offering multiple different meals, offering special foods on special occasions, and allowing the cat to choose when to eat. It was possible for respondents to return to previous questions and change their answers.

  • Associations of body condition score with health conditions related to overweight and obesity in cats. Secondly, some cat owners with an overweight cat may be aware of the problem but too embarrassed to report it, and therefore be more likely to score their cat as having normal body condition.

  • Personality traits of cat owners followed a normal distribution, with mean scores and standard deviation for each trait very similar to the general population

This overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett mean that veterinarians need to focus less on emphasizing the long-term benefits of weight management and instead highlight the overwdight benefits of obesity prevention, such as increased play and activity, performance of natural feline behaviors such as climbing or scratching, ability to groom normally prevalencs maintenance of a healthy coat, and slower progression of osteoarthritis and a better quality of life. The association between DM and overweight in cats is well-known and supported by our findings [ 147 ]. Many human studies also confirm that the size of food bowls, plates and utensils can impact the amount of food portioned and consumed 77 Secondly, encouraging owners to offer a range of different complete and balanced diets may be protective. Donoghue S. In both cohorts, Birman and Persian cats, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, whereas male cats were more likely to be overweight.

Inclusion criteria were that respondents must be aged 18 years or over and own at least one pet cat. When using the verbal scores as the dependent variable Model 2a recommendation by the breeder overweigjt feed a canned diet was also significantly associated with a decreased risk of obesity OR 0. J Cross Cult Psychol. Data handling was performed using SAS version 9. Raw commercial diets are typically minced or ground meat-based products; owners that feed raw human-grade meat and raw bones may be more likely to be feeding chunks of different meat, bone and organs, although it is possible that they are also preparing a minced diet at home. Questions on type of diet allowed several answers. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 19 8—

Accepted : 15 January It is well-established in other species that chronic social stress can lead to increased calorie intake and adiposity 63 Obes Rev. Firstly, the owner is biased as they are attached to the cat and cannot objectively score the cat. Feeding style differences. View 16 excerpts, cites background and results.

Materials and methods.

Overweight but unseen: a review of the underestimation of weight status and a visual normalization theory. Dependent Variables The primary dependent ovwrweight used for the study was owner-reported body condition score BCS. The primary reason for this was to assess the difference between results using the visual scale, and results using the verbal scale. It seems logical that, in this study, the most convincing results are, firstly, those that were found to be significant in all three models, and, secondly, the results of Model 3 alone, where any discordant BCS results had been removed from the analysis. Attempted treatment by weight reduction is often unsuccessful; a new preventative approach that focuses on the role of the owner may be helpful.

Some features of the site may not work correctly. Risk factors for underweight and overweight in cats in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Apartment dwelling, inactivity, middle age, being male, neutered, of mixed breeding, and certain dietary factors were associated with being overweight. Domestic cats had an increased risk of overweight compared with purebreds in the questionnaire cohort OR 1.

Elucidating the risk factors of feline lower urinary tract disease. This implies a lesser degree of confidence in the significance of six explanatory variables: owner preference for delayed reward only Model 1feeding supplements ffactors Model 2weighing the amount fed only Model 1adjusting amount fed based on body weight only Model 1cat a canned diet for health benefits only Model 2 and feeding a canned diet that looks appealing to the owner only Model 2. As previously mentioned, a limitation of this study is that the questionnaire did not ask for the cat's breed or coat length. Given that the fat content, energy density and palatability of most supermarket feline dry diets is now relatively comparable to most premium dry diets, it appears that this association between feeding a dry supermarket diet and increased risk of obesity might be an owner effect, rather than a diet effect. These interventions could include more intensive monitoring of body weight and BCS, the use of growth curves to try and identify early rapid growth, and recommendation of diets formulated especially for neutered animals Obesity Res.

MeSH terms

This approach should have an increased focus on the owner and their behavior, because the owner is responsible for the great majority of the cat's food intake. Select Format Select format. Apartment dwelling, inactivity, middle age, being male, neutered, of mixed breeding, and certain dietary factors were associated with being overweight. J Personal. Of these owners,

Fourteen cats were excluded for using a scale other than the nine-grade. Reprints and Permissions. Domestic cats had an increased risk of overweight compared with purebreds in the questionnaire cohort OR 1. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of overweight in adult cats, similar to other reports.

Prwvalence cross sectional study of the prevalence and risk factors for owner misperception of canine body shape in first opinion practice in Glasgow. Human-animal relationship of owners of normal and overweight cats. Scarlrtt is possible that the association between purchasing a cat from a registered breeder and the risk of overweight or obesity may be confounded by the types of breeds making up this population. The causes of obesity Obesity is an excess of body fat, which is generally caused by an energy intake superior to the energy expenditure. Dry food Cats that are fed with dry food are at an increased risk of obesity. On the other hand, associations between overweight and demographic factors including age, breed and sex, were similar between cohorts, strengthening the results. Another contributing factor could be that humans rely on both verbal and the visual modes of thought, and there are individual preferences for verbal vs.

Related Citations

Bruderer Enzler H. It was not possible to give more than two answers to this question. These variables overqeight summarized in Supplementary Material B. It was hypothesized that this finding may have been because of the increased fat content of premium therapeutic diets at that time. Prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity in a first opinion practice in Glasgow, Scotland.

  • J Anim Physiol Nutr.

  • Keywords: attachment, cat, diet, feline nutrition, feline obesity, owner, personality, psychology.

  • Environmental risk factors are the ones on which you can have a direct influence and that are independent of your cat. Kienzle E, Moik K.

  • Besides this no other selection was made for the cats included in this cohort [ 7 ]. Scarlett and Donoghue reported associations between obesity and lameness, DM, and non-allergic skin disorders [ 4 ], similar to the findings in our study, and Lund et al.

In this study, almost all cats purchased from a registered breeder were located in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom or New Zealand. Contact us Submission enquiries: editor-in-chief actavetscand. Larsen JA. The primary dependent variable used for the study was owner-reported body condition score BCS.

Preventative efforts should be therefore be directed toward owners at time of neutering. Given that the fat content, energy density and palatability of most supermarket feline dry diets is now relatively ris, to most premium dry diets, it appears that this association between feeding a dry supermarket diet and increased risk of obesity might be an owner effect, rather than a diet effect. Owners that enjoy feeding treats and find variety and indulgence appealing appear unlikely to be increasing the cat's risk of becoming overweight. Part Six assessed the extent to which the owner employs an indulgent feeding style when feeding their cat.

MeSH terms

Scarett 1 Feeding management of cats as it varied with body condition 1. Many cat owners may lack the time or motivation to learn and implement this feeding approach; additionally, many veterinarians may also have insufficient time during consultations to provide this training. Keywords: attachment, cat, diet, feline nutrition, feline obesity, owner, personality, psychology. Secondly, encouraging owners to offer a range of different complete and balanced diets may be protective.

Create Alert Alert. J Anim Znd Nutr. We chose the five-grade scale in order to facilitate body condition scoring for the owners. Furthermore, as discussed in section Dependent variables, there is likely to be inherent bias in studies that use owner-reported body condition score BCS as a dependent variable; a larger sample size improves the potential to detect significant associations when misclassification may be occurring. Pfeiffer, A cross-sectional study to compare changes in the prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity between and in New Zealand, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, VolumeIssues 1—2,PagesISSN .

It may be the case that there are particular characteristics of owners that purchase dry food from ovetweight, such as a lack of time, motivation or disposable income, that increase the risk of feline obesity developing. Silverman L. Obes Sci Prac. Table foods and miscellaneous foods were categorized as meats, fats and oils, milk, other dairy, fruit, human snacks e. J Soc Psychol. The inaccuracy when owners or veterinarians measure kibble with a scoop has been previously demonstrated 75 ,

The causes of obesity

In the questionnaire cohort, the Norwegian forest cat breed also showed a decreased risk of overweight. Several diagnostic code groups were associated with overweight. Unfortunately, no such questionnaire has been developed for veterinary use.

Being greedy was an independent risk factor also for DM in a previous study from our group [ 7 ]. Carbohydrate digestion by the domestic cat Felis catus. Part Five of the questionnaire was the Consideration of Future Consequences CFC scale, which was originally designed to assess the extent to which people emphasize short-term or long-term consequences. Canine and feline diabetes mellitus: nature or nurture? View 1 excerpt, cites background.

Table 1. Prevent Vet Med. As previously mentioned, a limitation of this study is that the questionnaire did not ocerweight for the cat's breed or coat length. One thousand five hundred sixty-seven respondents failed to complete every question; their responses were therefore excluded from all analyses. Welsh P. About one third received over-the-counter preparations for hairball prevention.

Prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity in a first fatcors practice in Glasgow, Scotland. This result was surprising, given our hypothesis that cat owners that are more consistent in their feeding practices may be less at risk of overfeeding their cat unintentionally. Thirdly, increased activity or exercise due to outdoor housing may also play a small role in moderating appetite and food intake, and increasing energy expenditure Thirdly, previous research suggests that many owners are fundamentally inaccurate with respect to how they perceive their cat's body condition.

Obesity Rev. These results are contrary to those of Suarez et al. These interventions could include more intensive monitoring of body dachshund and BCS, the use of growth curves to try and identify early rapid growth, and recommendation of diets formulated especially for neutered animals Almost one third of cats were offered commercial cat treats, but few were given multivitamin preparations or coat supplements. Measuring personality in one minute or less: a item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Silverman L.

Tucker L, Peterson T. Background Citations. Having a greedy eating behavior and being overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett were factors associated with overweight, as were diagnoses such as lower urinary tract disease, DM, respiratory disease, skin disorders and locomotor disease. By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License. Cat Facts Lifestyle. Stepwise backward selection was used to identify significant explanatory variables; the alpha level for determination of significance was 0.

Additionally, hunting occurs when cats are given outdoor access, which may be associated with increased activity and performance of natural feline behaviors, as previously discussed. Comp Hum Behav. It scarlett prevalenc to assess people's ability to override or alter internal responses, and to interrupt undesired behavioral inclinations and refrain from acting on them. Yes, but are they happy? A third univariable logistic regression model used only results from cats scored as obese using both the visual and verbal scoring methods as the dependent variable; this was compared with only cats scored as not obese using both methods Supplementary Material E. The most common reasons for owners to select a canned diet were: perceived health benefits

Free-choice canned. Table 2. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens. Food left out. Secondly, encouraging owners to offer a range of different complete and balanced diets may be protective.

Rowe et al. Cat neutering: the earlier the better to tackle overpopulation. J Wills Search articles by 'J Wills'. These findings are similar to experiences of others enrolling pet cats in weight-loss programs Butterwick et al.

Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats. Prevalence and aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in adult cats, to assess associations between overweight and demographic factors and diagnoses in a cohort of cats visiting a University Animal Hospital, and to add the evaluation on associations between overweight and environmental factors derived from questionnaire data obtained from a cohort of adult, insured cats. The additional results detected by the verbal scale may be partially due to the slightly higher number of respondents that scored their cat as either obese or overweight using the verbal scoring method, compared with the visual method. In order to minimize any misclassification as discussed in section Dependent variablethis study converted owner-reported BCS to a binary dependent variable: overweight or obese BCS 4—5 and not overweight BCS 1—3. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in an urban population of healthy cats. Discussion The prevalence of overweight in adult cats visiting an academic medical center in our study was high, with almost every second cat considered overweight when body condition was assessed by a veterinarian or veterinary student. Published : 19 January

Dependent Variables The primary dependent variable used for the study was owner-reported body condition score BCS. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Feeding style differences.

The explanation proposed in the studies is that kibbles taarabt qpr overweight dachshund a high energy density food, meaning that the cats need to eat only a small amount of it due to the prealence amount of calories in kibbles. Ask your vet how you should proceed. Prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity in a first opinion practice in Glasgow, Scotland. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. We chose the five-grade scale in order to facilitate body condition scoring for the owners. Full size image. Neutering status was only significant in the medical records cohort, where neutering was associated with an increased risk of being overweight OR 1.

A third univariable logistic regression model used only results from cats scored as obese using both the visual and verbal scoring methods as prevalemce dependent variable; this was compared with only cats scored as not obese using both methods Supplementary Material E. Regardless, given that feeding raw bones alone was strongly protective against obesity Model 3it may be the case that this type of diet provides beneficial enrichment, by allowing normal chewing and gnawing behaviors and extending the time taken for consumption of meals. Silverman L. There was a total of 6, responses to the visual BCS assessment question, following the exclusion of incomplete or partially completed questionnaires. Cats were excluded if younger than 1 year of age at time of the visit to avoid cats that were not fully grown.

About one third received over-the-counter preparations for hairball prevention. Sutin AR, Terracciano A. Of those,

These risk factors included personality traits, self-control, indulgent feeding practices and preference for immediate overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett. View on PubMed. The explanation proposed in the studies is that kibbles are a high energy density food, meaning that the cats need to eat only a small amount of it due to the high amount of calories in kibbles. Allan, S. Article Google Scholar. Hanford RLinder DE. Furthermore, overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of other diseases, such as lower urinary tract disease, dermatoses, oral cavity disease, and lameness [ 4620 ].

Another contributing factor could be that humans rely on both verbal and the visual modes of thought, and there are individual preferences for verbal vs. Measuring personality in one minute or less: and risk factors item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Unfortunately, no such questionnaire has been developed for veterinary use. PLoS One15 9 :e, 18 Sep Elfhag K, Morey LC. Over the last 5 years, breeds with a decreased risk of obesity, such as the Oriental Shorthair, have proven less popular in those countries. Additionally, several studies demonstrate that people consuming a similar number of calories each day have lower body fat percentages, and lower fat and energy intakes, compared to those with more inconsistent caloric intake

Tags Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter. R Core Team. This study used the same methods to assess owner-perceived BCS as Colliard et al. Sutin AR, Terracciano A. Cited by: 7 articles PMID:

  • Download citation. Association of personality with the development and persistence of obesity: a meta-analysis based on individual—participant data.

  • Double sampling is a method that combines a small validation sample with an error-prone main-study sample, potentially yielding results that are more accurate Personal Individual Differ.

  • Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

  • Mother and child personality traits associated with common feeding strategies and child body mass index.

  • Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Finally, the consequences and costs of obesity are well-established in many species, and include the development of multiple associated diseases, reduced quality of life and a decrease in lifespan 12 ,

There are a number of reasons why indulgent feeding practices may be associated with decreased risk of obesity in cats. Several common feline behaviors were shown to increase or decrease the risk of obesity; these included stealing human foods and stealing another cat's food. This study employed two methods to assess owner-reported BCS—a visual scale and a verbal scale. Email alerts Article activity alert.

Overweight cats: overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett and risk factors. Does personality affect dietary intake? Prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity in a first opinion practice in Glasgow, Scotland. Increased dietary protein promotes fat loss and reduces loss of lean body mass during weight loss in cats. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult cats from private US veterinary practices. In people, cats, and dogs, obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of certain types of cancer, and with a shortened life span [ 622232425 ].

Background

Domestic cats had an increased risk of overweight compared with purebreds in the questionnaire cohort OR 1. Activity level was associated with overweight in our study, with inactive cats at higher risk. S Donoghue Search articles by 'S Donoghue'.

J Am Vet Med Assoc. Feline obesity is a highly prevalent disease that poses an urgent and serious challenge. Human-animal relationship of owners of normal and overweight cats. Cat Facts Lifestyle.

Factor validation of overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett consideration of future consequences scale: evidence for a short version. Toward the construction of an instrument to assess visual- spatial learners. This could assist with early recognition of cats or kittens that are at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese, so that appropriate intervention can be made. Personality traits of cat owners followed a normal distribution, with mean scores and standard deviation for each trait very similar to the general population View Metrics.

Additionally, several studies demonstrate that people consuming a similar number of calories each day have lower body fat percentages, and lower fat and energy intakes, compared to those with more inconsistent caloric intake Variation in energy intake across 7 consecutive days and body fat percentage in middle-age women. Vet Record. Systematic development and validation of a theory-based questionnaire to assess toddler feeding. Only

It is acknowledged that these biases are a limitation of this study, however, the likely outcome is that the magnitude of any associations detected may be underestimated BMC Vet Res. Results regarding the cat's gender and neuter status also corresponded with previous studies; in our study neutering was found to be a risk factor for obesity in both male and female cats, using both the visual and verbal scores as dependent variables 359 Environ Behav. Housing was also significantly associated with obesity or overweight using the verbal score as the dependent variable. Coe, JB.

The items for the questionnaire were derived from a review of the clinical and experimental literature on parental feeding behaviors, adapting existing human questionnaires in particular, the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire and carrying out informal interviews with a small convenience sample of cat owners 31 Veterinarians in our — study were invited to participate again. German AJ. Materials and Methods Subjects Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from a multinational, online questionnaire designed to assess owner psychology and socio-demographics, cat health, and feeding practices Supplementary Material A. Systematic development and validation of a theory-based questionnaire to assess toddler feeding. Part Five of the questionnaire was the Consideration of Future Consequences CFC scale, which was originally designed to assess the extent to which people emphasize short-term or long-term consequences. Download all slides.

Assumptions of statistical models were checked graphically, also as described in Dohoo Oerweight order to minimize any misclassification as discussed in section Dependent variablethis study converted owner-reported BCS to a binary dependent variable: overweight or obese BCS 4—5 and not overweight BCS 1—3. A cross-sectional study to compare changes in the prevalence and risk factors for feline obesity between and in New Zealand.

  • Acta Vet Scand 60, 5 Scoring body condition using a visual scale is inherently more subjective, when compared with a verbal scale.

  • Regular assessment of BCS by owners and consequent adjustment of the amount fed also sounds ideal, however this requires education of owners so scarlegt they are, firstly, able to accurately and consistently detect subtle changes in body condition, and secondly, able to appropriately increase or decrease the amount fed per day, in response to any change. The case for conscientiousness: evidence and implications for a personality trait marker of health and longevity.

  • As far as the authors are aware, the complex relationship between owner psychology and the risk of feline obesity has not yet been comprehensively explored.

  • The increased risk associated with feeding a supermarket diet to cats has not been previously documented, in fact, studies by both Scarlett et al.

  • It is not clear whether the neutering itself causes insulin resistance or whether it indirectly influences the risk of DM by increasing the risk of obesity.

  • Table 2 Diagnostic code groups and body condition Full size table.

This was indicated not only overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett the results of the three consistent feeding questions, but also a separate question confirming that cats fed the same food everyday were ptevalence increased risk of obesity Model 3: OR 1. All three models confirmed that cats purchased from a registered breeder were at greatly decreased risk of being overweight, when compared with cats acquired from all other sources. Table 3. Multiple responses were allowed so percentages do not equal Mixed feeding practices offering both dry and canned foods were relatively common, with

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Overweight heavy and obese cats were more likely to be male, neutered, middle-aged, living in an apartment, consuming nongrocery-store dry overweight cats prevalence and risk factors scarlett foods and cate widely used prescribed diets, and not hunting. Unfortunately, no such questionnaire has been developed for veterinary use. Overweight cats consumed significantly more weight-reducing foods than other types of food, compared with cats with trimmer body conditions Table 2. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Two multivariable analyses were performed, using either the visual Model 1, Table 2 or the verbal Model 2, Table 3 BCS as the dependent variable.

Res Vet Sci. Psychological dispositions, indicated by measures of personality and behavior, have been strongly implicated in obesity risk in both adults and their dependent children 14 View 4 excerpts, cites results and background. Eighty-four explanatory variables were extracted from the data and analyzed as potential risk factors for feline obesity. Several diagnostic code groups were associated with overweight. Russell, K. Food puzzles for cats: feeding for physical and emotional wellbeing.

Because food bowls were often empty at the end of the day, food left out was considered distinct from unlimited food intake. The questionnaire consists of 10 items divided into the five broad domains—neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, each of which are rated on a 5-point Likert scale. All three models confirmed that cats purchased from a registered breeder were at greatly decreased risk of being overweight, when compared with cats acquired from all other sources. Perhaps more significantly, it may be quick and simple to identify cat owners with lower overall conscientiousness, using the BFI

Overweight cats - prevalence and risk-factors. Select Format Select format. Markwell P. Food left out. It is therefore not surprising that using a scoop to measure out food was significantly associated with feline obesity in all three models Model 3: OR 1. Kim J.

Search articles by 'J M Scarlett'. The Prevalence and risk Attachment to Pets Scale, developed overweighy Johnson, Garrity, and Stallones, is perhaps the most widely used questionnaire to assess emotional attachment to pets As I explained in my previous blog articleobesity is a serious health problem and a growing concern with around one cat out of three which is overweight! Kienzle E, Moik K. The prevalence of overweight in adult cats visiting an academic medical center in our study was high, with almost every second cat considered overweight when body condition was assessed by a veterinarian or veterinary student. This section predominantly contained straightforward multiple choice questions that were quick and easy for the owner to answer. All cat owners received an invitation to participate in the study by mail, including a web address to the survey.

This misclassification is a recognizable source of information bias; there is a risk this may conceal associations of interest. The human-related risk factor Finally, the last category of risk factors is the one that is directly linked to the owner. In this study, almost all cats purchased from a registered breeder were located in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom or New Zealand.

  • The cat then learns that starting an interaction with their owner will result in a reward in the form of food. Overweight cats: prevalence and risk factors.

  • Kim J.

  • A lack of awareness about the health issue associated with obesity is also a risk factor for obesity.

  • Big-Five personality factors, obesity and 2-year weight gain in Australian adults.

  • It therefore seems unlikely that the protective effect of purchasing a cat from a registered breeder is due to a predominance of breeds with decreased risk of obesity, in fact, the most popular registered breeds may be at an increased risk.

Kim J. The Lexington Attachment lverweight Pets Scale, developed by Johnson, Garrity, and Stallones, is perhaps the most widely used questionnaire to assess emotional attachment to pets InKienzle and Bergler found evidence of a closer relationship between obese cats and their owners, which contrasted with our finding that the owner's attachment to their cat was not a significant risk factor for obesity Table 2 Types of commercial cat foods offered to cats by body condition 1.

  • Rowe, W.

  • Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation.

  • Questions on type of diet allowed several answers. Proc R Soc B.

Article Google Scholar Download references. Confidence intervals for the ratio of two Poisson rates under one-way differential misclassification using double sampling. Obesity is in itself also considered a major animal welfare problem [ 26 ]. Personality and eating behaviour in obesity: poor self-control in emotional and external eating but personality assets in restrained eating.

Laflamme DP. Risk factors for underweight and overweight in cats in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Gender Male cats are at increased risk of obesity. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult cats from private US veterinary practices. It was possible for respondents to return to previous questions and change their answers.

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