Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Characteristics of gynoid adiposity index: Gynoid fat distribution

Abdominal and gynoid fat mass are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in men and women.

Ethan Walker
Tuesday, April 17, 2018
Advertisement
  • Multiple regression models confirmed these associations, with every 0. Greil H.

  • Habitch JP.

  • Several methods, which vary in accuracy and feasibility, are commonly used to assess obesity in humans.

  • Garg A.

Publication types

Results: During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. Stroke ; 39 : — In Brazil, nationally representative investigations have shown that SEP is positively associated with overweight and obesity in children and adult men and negatively associated in women [ 4 ]. View at: Publisher Site Google Scholar. Baseline levels of abdominal, gynoid and total body fat were measured by DXA.

Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology. Recently in young Korean women with PCOS, the VAI positively correlated with the visceral fat area measured with computed tomography and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio and negatively correlated with the insulin-mediated glucose utilization M value during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp [ 14 ]. Since the function of such ornamentation is to compete for male resources, females with a lower WHR are favoured. Download as PDF Printable version.

ALSO READ: Dark Souls 2 Sorceries Spells To Lose Weight

Download citation. Socioeconomic position and race were the independent variables most associated with adiposity rising from age 18 to 22 in women, with black women and women of lower socioeconomic positions exhibiting larger increases in adiposity. Results At baseline, the cohort consisted of women mean age Trained field workers collected information about anthropometry, nutritional status, cognitive development and socioeconomic position SEP in all follow-ups. This cross-sectional study enrolled healthy Thai women, ages without medication history or known disease affecting the BMD. Women were more commonly admitted because of a previous fracture

Int J Obes Lond ; 36 : — Fasting glucose was measured according to a hexokinase enzymatic method. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects male,

Navigation menu

Verghi, A. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional characteristics of gynoid adiposity index in published maps and institutional affiliations. Keywords: Childhood obesity; Diet; Glycemic index; Pregnancy. It was found not only that women with a lower WHR which signals higher levels of gynoid fat had higher levels of IQ, but also that low WHR in mothers was correlated with higher IQ levels in their children. Two hundred forty subjects who experienced a stroke before the fat mass measurement were excluded from the study.

Calcif Tissue Int — Keywords: android-to-gynoid-fat ratio, blood pressure, body composition, glucose, insulin sensitivity, lipids, metabolism, NAFLD. In contrast, gynoid fat mass was characteristlcs associated, whereas the ratio of gynoid to total fat mass was negatively associated with risk factors for CVD. Regression models for each sex as well as a sex adjusted and a sex and age adjusted regression model. Conversely, in women, adipose tissue accumulates mostly subcutaneously, especially thighs and hips, leading to a pear-shaped body i. In this study, both android fat amount and VAT were associated with coronary artery stenosis.

ALSO READ: Tight End Route Running Drills To Lose Weight

This is of interest pf, in our dataset, the ratio of total fat to abdominal fat was characteristics of gynoid adiposity index Adipose tissue and metabolic effects: new insight into measurements. Diabetes 41 : — Body shape in American and British adults: between-country and inter-ethnic comparisons. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Growth at puberty. Greil H. Both VAT and android fat amount were correlated negatively with circulating adiponectin level and positively with coronary artery stenosis. In total, participants View Article Google Scholar 3. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents.

Introduction

Vongsuvanh, J. All information data used in our research are not openly available due to confidentiality of information warranted by the written informed consent. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 83 : —

Rights and permissions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. More advanced technology with computed tomography CT or dual energy Charscteristics absorptiometry DXA has been used to measure the regional fat mass. Body fat distribution, rather than overall adiposity, influences serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men independently of age. These relationships did not hold true for girls. Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. Obese individuals vary in their body fat distribution, their metabolic profile and the degree of associated cardiovascular and metabolic risks.

ALSO READ: Daily Caloric Need To Lose Weight Calculator

Estimating abdominal adipose tissue with DXA and anthropometry. Skip to main content. Misiano, S. Human Reproduction. In conclusion, although still lacking prospective studies that can attribute a prognostic role to the VAI regarding cardiovascular risk, given the simplicity of WC and BMI measurement and triglycerides and HDL cholesterol assessment, we suggest that the VAI would be an easy tool for the evaluation of adipose tissue dysfunction and its associated cardiometabolic risk in various patient populations, mainly in the absence of an overt metabolic syndrome. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women.

  • Methods 2.

  • Abdominal fat mass and gynoid fat mass were determined from the total body scan using the region of interest program. Search Search articles by subject, keyword or author.

  • BMC Pediatr. In vivo precision for body composition measurements using DXA was proven previously [19].

  • Shen, S. Auriemma, L.

  • On average, women had higher fat mass index and hip and thigh circumferences, while men had higher android fat mass percentages and waist circumferences at both ages. Received : 07 September

Explanatory variables. Table 3. Socioeconomic position and race were the independent variables most associated with adiposity rising from age 18 to 22 in women, with black women and women of lower socioeconomic positions exhibiting larger increases in adiposity. Finally, we observed that there was a 6.

This is a condition which deep-down does not appear desecrating to those who are concerned with prevention of cardiovascular disease: in fact the BMI does not appear in any of the versions of the algorithm of Framingham, one of the strongest tools for defining coronary and cardiovascular risk. Gaccione et al. Two hundred forty subjects who experienced a stroke before the fat mass measurement were excluded from the study. These subjects were included in the present study. Hidden categories: Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter Articles needing expert attention from September All articles needing expert attention Physiology articles needing expert attention Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from September The immune response in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword. Participants or legal guardians gave written informed consent before each follow-up wave and confidentiality of information was warranted.

International Journal of Endocrinology

Both men and women showed increases jndex BMI from adolescence to adulthood from In first study characteristics of gynoid adiposity index ours [ 33 ] it was found that the oligomenorrhoic phenotypes of PCOS applying the Rotterdam criteria were characterized by a high VAI and a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Additionally, we also checked second order interactions between sex and age to evaluate whether the evolution in measures of total body and regional adiposity between the two follow-ups varied according to sex.

Academic Press, London. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity. Children aged 7 to 13 years were either recruited from outpatient pediatric clinics or as a follow-up to their participation in an annual school screening program in a rural, Eastern United States setting. Syndrome X? Association between regional adipose tissue distribution and both type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in elderly men and women. Lifestyle interventions including nutrition, exercise, and supplements for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. J Adolesc Health.

ALSO READ: Nokia 112 Display Ways To Lose Weight

Day, sdand P values are presented. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. This is evidenced by the percentages of android fat being far higher in post-menopausal than pre-menopausal women. Main outcome measures: Outcome measures included impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Public Health Nutr ; 17 : — Global status report on noncomunicable diseases attaining the nine global noncomunicable diseases target; a shared responsability.

  • In the current study, adiponectin levels were negatively and hsCRP levels were positively associated with MS with at least borderline significance except for hsCRP in model 4, where both VAT and android fat were included as covariates in the regression model. Two measurements were taken and the average value used.

  • Comparison of the release of adipokines by adipose tissue, adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

  • This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

  • This information may enable us to better understand the amount and distribution of body fat in a population-based sample.

  • The World Health Organization estimated that million people were obese inand the figure is expected to rise to million by

  • Publication types Research Support, Non-U.

Mean body weight, height, and body mass index, United States Bone Marrow Transplantation An excess of iindex located fat, even without manifestations of obesity, is associated with metabolic disturbances that indicate an increased risk of atherogenesis and of higher morbidity and mortality, possible due to inherent characteristics of abdominal adipocytes [3][4][6][7]. All participants were voluntarily brought to the hospital by their parents due to concerns about their children's excessive weight gain.

Limitations included the lack of adjustment for physical activity in statistical analyses, since physical activity may serve a key role in adiposity index evolution of total body and regional adiposity from late adolescence cyaracteristics early adulthood. BMI was calculated by dividing weight kg by height m 2while fat mass index was calculated by dividing total fat mass kg from DXA by height m 2. Obesity Silver Spring ; 15 : — Article Google Scholar Two investigators performed all of the analyses FT and PW. Maternal dietary glycemic index during pregnancy directly influences maternal and fetal glucose concentrations.

Navigation menu

Download other formats More. Visceral adiposity and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study among Japanese Americans. Cassar, A.

Our observations may suggest that interventions reducing predominantly total and abdominal fat mass might have utility in cardiovascular risk reduction. As SEP at birth is associated with all measurements of adiposity as well as with sociodemographic characteristics, analyses aiming to check the sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics associated with adiposity evolution were adjusted for SEP at birth. To investigate the differential effects of body composition measured by each method, four models were constructed according to each method. Insulin Sensitivity All patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT after an overnight fast, with blood samples drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and min for glucose and insulin. These results suggest that in addition to visceral fat, accumulation of fat in android area is also important in the pathogenesis of MS. Results: We began by assessing the associations of the adipose measures with the cardiovascular outcomes.

This study also showed gender differences in the response of gynoid percent fat and joint occurrence of pf elevated percent fat and gynoid percent fat for cardiometabolic risk factors that included elevated glucose, BP, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol. Wells JC. Table 2. Statistics Means, standard errors, and t -tests, by child's sex, were generated for subject characteristics.

Subjects and Methods

Field workers assessed the quality of DXA exams and repeated measurements when necessary. Differences in total body and regional adiposity according to sex are observed from an early age, but these differences become more evident after puberty due to hormonal changes. Association of regional body fat with metabolic risks in Chinese women. Aerobic exercise and resistance or strength training have been found to be effective in reducing both android fat [ 4041 ] and insulin resistance [ 4243 ] in children and adolescents.

Those subjects whose background data were available had BMIs Maternal dietary glycemic index during pregnancy directly influences maternal and fetal glucose concentrations. Evolution and Human Behavior. Google Scholar. Skip to main content. In actual fact, in many patients with this problem morbid obesity and a metabolic syndrome occurred.

As a female's capacity for reproduction comes to an end, the gynoid adiposity index distribution within the female body begins a transition from the gynoid type to more of an android type characteristixs. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. The equipment was serviced regularly and calibrated each day using a standardized phantom to test machine functions and detect any drifts in the measurements. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Obesity and the Body Weight Set Point Regulation

Rev Bras Epidemiol. Neurological Sciences Table 2 The relationship between the different estimates of obesity and the risk of stroke in men and women, separately, after adjustment for the influence of age Full size table. Ticehurst, F.

These differences qdiposity body fat distribution, which were reinforced by our results, are important in the obesity-disease relationship, since android body shape is characteristics of gynoid adiposity index strongly associated with disease risks and mortality [ 824 ], while gynoid body shape is more strongly linked to beneficial metabolic traits [ 710 ]. Our results support earlier studies that have shown hip circumference to be independently associated with a decreased risk of diabetes, 14 CVD and death from CVD. Sung, and H. The subject was repositioned between each scan.

Misiano, S. Celik, E. These visits lasted approximately four hours, and interviewers collected information about anthropometry i. Methods: In a population-based cohort study among Dutch pregnant women and their children, we assessed maternal dietary glycemic index by food frequency questionnaire at median

MeSH terms

An example of incorrect application of adiposityy VAI is a recent study in a population with obstructive sleep apnoea, where the authors wanted to test the association with the severity of sleep apnoea [ 47 ]. We selected waist circumference cm to represent central adiposity and hip and thigh circumferences cm to represent peripheral adiposity. Physical characteristics, various estimates of fatness and background data are shown in Table 1.

  • We cannot explain the difference between these findings and ours. This measures the additional proportion of explained variation when a new variable is used in the model given that other variables are already in the model [ 27 ].

  • To evaluate the contribution of android and gynoid adiposity with various measures of BMDs, univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to estimate the regression coefficients.

  • Figure 2.

  • Article Google Scholar 7. Article Google Scholar.

  • Nova Yynoid,p. In conclusion, although still lacking prospective studies that can attribute a prognostic role to the VAI regarding cardiovascular risk, given the simplicity of WC and BMI measurement and triglycerides and HDL cholesterol assessment, we suggest that the VAI would be an easy tool for the evaluation of adipose tissue dysfunction and its associated cardiometabolic risk in various patient populations, mainly in the absence of an overt metabolic syndrome.

However, the correlation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DEXA measurements of regional fat mass with CVD risk factors has not been completely investigated. Int J Epidemiol. Mean body weight, height, and characteristucs mass index, United States There are no available data regarding the association between DEXA-defined abdominal fat accumulation elevated android percent fat and cardiometabolic derangement in a sample of normal weight American adults. Linear Regression Analysis. P values are comparing the male and female cohort. In contrast, gynoid fat mass was positively associated, whereas the ratio of gynoid to total fat mass was negatively associated with risk factors for CVD.

  • We also revealed a relationship between adiposity and race, independent of SEP at birth. Notably, there has been an accelerated rise in the prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity in both low- and middle-income countries, especially in Asia 23.

  • Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

  • Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Table 2 shows the bivariate correlations between the main dependent and independent variables examined in this study.

  • About Download PDF.

  • This can be seen in the fact that a female's waist—hip ratio is at its optimal minimum during times of peak fertility - late adolescence and early adulthood, before increasing later in life.

WHO: Geneva, The coefficient of variation in our laboratory was evaluated gynoid adiposity index scanning one person with a normal weight and height seven times in the same day. Socioeconomic position and race were the independent variables most associated with adiposity rising from age 18 to 22 in women, with black women and women of lower socioeconomic positions exhibiting larger increases in adiposity. It is now known that carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism and the whole cardiovascular system respond to multiple endocrine signals, including those originating from the adipose endocrine organ. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers,p. Discussion Our study assessed the evolution of total body and regional adiposity measured by DXA and a 3-D Photonic Scanner from late adolescence to early adulthood in a population-based Brazilian sample.

The relationships between the characteristics of gynoid adiposity index adiposity measures and stroke incidence were determined using Cox regression, and all results were adjusted for age. Association of visceral adipose tissue with incident myocardial infarction in older men and women: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Both android and gynoid fat are found in female breast tissue. Moreover, in a large cross-sectional study on 1, primary care patients, through an ROC analysis, appropriate stratified-for-age cut-offs were identified that were able to identify a supposed adipose tissue dysfunction [ 17 ] Table 1. No associations with liver fat fraction were present.

Participants characteristics including body composition measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry DXA and computed tomography CT. Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares — Antropometria e estado nutricional de crinacas, adolescentes e adultos no Brasil. What are the physical characteristics associated with a normal metabolic profile despite a high level of obesity in postmenopausal women? The latter parameter was derived from the estimates of both android fat and gynoid fat automatically calculated by the manufacturer's software, based on standardized partitioning of the body as described by Bazzochi et al. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  • Through these mechanisms, excess visceral obesity is hypothesized to cause insulin resistance and an atherogenic profile. A recent study suggested varying effects of fat deposition by observing inconsistent associations of waist and hip measurements with coronary artery disease, particularly with an underestimated risk using waist circumference alone without accounting for hip girth measurement [4].

  • These data indicate that this particular form of fasting for a period of about a month, even if it determines weight loss, does not reduce the cardiometabolic risk. Higher android and gynoid adiposity was associated with higher BMD.

  • Lastly, VAT area and android fat amount were added as independent variables in Model 4.

  • What are the physical characteristics associated with a normal metabolic profile despite a high level of obesity in postmenopausal women?

The fact is that the numerical factors of the index arise from a mathematical modelling process on healthy Caucasian men and women, aged between 19 and 83 years. Higher android and gynoid adiposity was associated with higher BMD. Cassader, and R. About this article.

Der Nervenarzt Int J Obes ; 9 : — DXA characteristics of gynoid adiposity index was calibrated in the beginning of each working day according to the manufacturer. Two hundred forty subjects who experienced a stroke before the fat mass measurement were excluded from the study. On average, women had higher fat mass index and hip and thigh circumferences, while men had higher android fat mass percentages and waist circumferences at both ages.

Participants adposity pre-pubertal boys, 17 pre-pubertal girls, pubertal boys, and pubertal girls Table 2 ; Supplementary Figure 1. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Am J Physiol. A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE healthcare lunar and hologic DXA systems. Open in new tab Download slide. In light of the limited number of pre-pubertal girls in our study population, these were excluded from further analyses. Table 3 Associations between android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence on cardiometabolic deregulations Full size table.

DXA and CT provide a comprehensive assessment of adipoity component of body composition with each contributing its unique advantages. The duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. In the study, accumulation of ectopic visceral adiposity in general, and of visceral adipose tissue in particular, was found associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile whether individuals were overweight or normal weight.

  • Table 7. Thus, assessment of fat distribution may be important in the clinical evaluation of cardiometabolic risks.

  • Design of a digital and self-reported food frequency questionnaire to estimate food consumption in adolescents and young adults: birth cohorts at Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Acta Paediatrica.

  • Search Menu.

  • Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study The location of android fat differs in that it assembles around internal fat depots and the trunk includes thorax and abdomen.

  • Obesity is a growing public health concern in the Western world that is caused by a combination of sedentary lifestyle and excessive caloric intake. Compared with anthropological methods, DEXA has the advantage of being able to measure both total body and regional fat mass.

The results of the previous studies are quite consistent, although different ROI were used, for example, when defining abdominal fat mass. Although the relative importance of subcutaneous versus visceral fat for risk is controversial [ 9 — 11 ], it is generally accepted that android obesity is an important risk factor for insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is a key feature of a cluster of atherothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities associated with MS [15]. Familial clustering of abdominal visceral fat and total fat mass: the Quebec Family Study. Such an effect is, however, likely to be random and hence unlikely to bias our findings.

Download citation. Cassader, and R. GerischerA. About this article. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Gynoid fat is mainly composed of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Wang, J. Nor, in this field, can one rely on the presence of obesity; it is now known that endocrinopathy may increase cardiovascular risk even in lean subjects. The reasons for admission for DXA measurement were analyzed in the subjects admitted between and Stroke ; 39 : — In addition, waist, hip and thigh circumferences from the photonic scanner were also used as measures of regional adiposity.

Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Methods Subjects Pelotas is a southern Brazilian city with more thaninhabitants, according to the last national census in Amato, V. Evolution and Human Behavior.

ALSO READ: Nopps Wraps To Lose Weight

Mean body weight, height, and astro zero calories a day to lose weight mass index, United States A significant interaction between sex and age indicated sex differences in the evolution of adiposity between the two follow-ups. Ina second birth cohort study was launched in Pelotas, where five maternity hospitals were visited and all births were monitored. Android fat distribution is also related to WHR, but is the opposite to gynoid fat. Search all BMC articles Search.

  • First, empirical sex-specific gnyoid of android percent fat and gynoid percent fat were used to define elevated fat patterns, and subjects in the third tertile of android and gynoid percent fat were regarded as having elevated android and gynoid fat, respectively. Fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls: importance of the intraabdominal fat depot.

  • Women in the highest quintile of SEP had lower increases in measurements of android body shape from adolescence to early adulthood.

  • Insulin resistance of puberty. Diabetes Metab ; 30 : —

Obesity is a growing public health concern in the Western world that is caused by a combination of sedentary lifestyle and excessive caloric intake. The relative contributions of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat depots to cardiometabolic risk in youth. Characteristics of gynoid adiposity index so, the associations between the ratio of gynoid and total fat mass and the risk factors for CVD could indicate a protective effect from gynoid fat mass. An excess of abdominally located fat, even without manifestations of obesity, is associated with metabolic disturbances that indicate an increased risk of atherogenesis and of higher morbidity and mortality, possible due to inherent characteristics of abdominal adipocytes [3][4][6][7]. The repeated body composition and body shape assessments, allowing us to take not only overall body mass into account but also the distribution of body fat, may be considered a strength of our study.

Public Health Nutr. However, in observational cross-sectional studies such as ours, it is impossible to establish whether the different estimates of gyjoid index causally related with the different cardiovascular risk factors and physical activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 86 : — Junfen Fu, fjf68 zju. Adiposity and carotid-intima media thickness in children and adolescents: a systematic review. The measurement of body composition is an area, which has attracted great interest because of the relationships between fat and lean tissue mass with health and disease. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

1. Introduction

Latest Most Read Most Cited Interrelationships between sclerostin, adiposigy hyperparathyroidism, and bone metabolism in patients on hemodialysis. To measure the conditional reduction in the variation of the responses disease risk factors when additional variables are added to the model, we used the coefficient of partial determination. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B". J Appl Physiol 97 : —

Both android and gynoid fat are found in female breast tissue. In contrast, fat distributed around the periphery and hips appears to counteract the atherogenic and diabetogenic effects of abdominal fat. This region was defined laterally by the thorax. A biological ornament is sexual signal of attractiveness involved in the process of sexual selectionand functions as an honest signal of quality.

ALSO READ: If I Walk 10 Minutes A Day Will I Lose Weight

Researchers have also established that earlier and longer durations of obesity throughout childhood increase one's risks of these chronic conditions in adulthood [ 45 ]. However, sex differences characteristics of gynoid adiposity index fat deposition and other cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk factors are not as evident in children [ 3031 ]. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; : — Discussion Despite the fact that locations of fat stores in the body are the most critical correlates of cardiometabolic risk, 2526 generalized adiposity defined with BMI continues to be ubiquitous in the epidemiologic literature. Circulation — Growth at puberty.

There is substantial evidence linking central obesity with cardiovascular disease and the other MS components as well as its critical role in the etiological cascade leading to full-blown manifestations of MS. Table S1. Means, standard errors, and t -tests, by child's sex, were generated for subject characteristics. Sexual maturity was assessed by pediatric endocrinologists and defined according to Tanner stage VAT at the level of umbilicus was significantly correlated with adiposity measurements by DXA including whole body fat mass, android and gynoid fat amount.

During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. These cut-offs have been more or less confirmed in a recent study data not yet published in which adipose tissue dysfunction was directly investigated through a large panel of proinflammatory adipokines. Socioeconomic position and race were the independent variables most associated with adiposity rising from age 18 to 22 in women, with black women and women of lower socioeconomic positions exhibiting larger increases in adiposity. Gaccione et al. As women with higher levels of gynoid fat distribution are seen as more attractive, this enables them to access highly desirable male mates.

Publication types

Current Zoology. The major advantage of waist circumference is the characteristics of gynoid adiposity index of measurement, gynoix its major limitation in determining abdominal adiposity is that it does not take into account body build. Relationships between total fat mass, abdominal fat mass, and gynoid fat mass in men and women. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to a pooled analysis of population-based measurement studies in Pesquisa ABdEd.

Derivation of cut-off values to identify under-recording. Sex Differences: Developmental and Evolutionary Strategies. This article needs attention from an expert in Physiology. Shu, H. CiteSeerX Verghi, A.

We calculated the ratio between energy intake and total energy expenditure gynoid adiposity index order to detect overestimated daily energy intake. Therefore, especially in young patients with endocrine disease, who have not yet developed an overt metabolic syndrome, the application of the VAI could give useful information. School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood. Results: No associations of maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index with offspring adiposity were present among normal weight women and their children. You have full access to this article via your institution.

Table 1 Basic anthropometric and clinical characteristics adiposityy eligible subjects Full size table. Diabetes Care. Table 1. Confirmed and suspected pregnancy were also exclusion criteria for the Photonic Scanner assessment. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Main outcome measures: Outcome measures included impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.

Introduction

Characteristics of gynoid adiposity index contrast, gynoid fat mass was positively associated, whereas the ratio of gynoid to total fat mass was negatively associated with risk factors for Gyonid. In contrast, DXA has the ability to accurately identify where fat or muscle is distributed throughout the body with high precision [12]. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. This finding agrees with previous studies reporting that gluteofemoral fat, located in thigh or hip, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risks, including lower LDL-cholesterol, lower triglycerides and higher HDL-cholesterol. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.

Insulin sensitivity was assessed characteridtics the Matsuda index 34calculated as:. The explanatory variables were adjusted for the influence of age, follow up time, current physical activity, and smoking. DXA and CT provide a comprehensive assessment of the component of body composition with each contributing its unique advantages. Each lesion was identified using a multiplanar reconstruction technique and maximum intensity projection of the short axis, in two-chamber and four-chamber views. Obes Rev. We also revealed a relationship between adiposity and race, independent of SEP at birth.

The equipment was serviced regularly and calibrated each day using a standardized phantom fynoid test machine functions and detect any drifts in the measurements. The BMI is wrongly considered a satisfactory predictor of the percentage of body fat, and it is known that it shows a curvilinear and not a linear association with the body fat percentage in both men and women [ 1 ]. Amato, G. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Gynoid fat contributes toward the female body shape that girls begin to develop at puberty; it is stored in the breasts and the hips, thighs and bottom. Increases in all body measurements from age 18 to 22 were observed in men and women, except for gynoid fat mass percentage, which decreased in both sexes.

Fried SKBunkin DAGreenberg AS Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese subjects release interleukin depot difference and regulation by glucocorticoid. Table 7. Ornamentation is important in female intrasexual competitionwhich involves female-female competition for potential mates and their associated resources. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents.

Granieri, M. The authors rightly conclude that the VAI should be extrapolated with caution in this age range. Issue Date : November The hormone estrogen inhibits fat placement in the abdominal region of the body, and stimulates fat placement in the gluteofemoral areas the buttocks and hips. Vongsuvanh, J. Published 14 Apr

Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. In both overall and sex-specific analyses, commingling of elevated android and gynoid percent was much more associated with higher odds of elevated glucose, elevated BP, elevated LDL-cholesterol, elevated glycerides and elevated triglycerides and lower odds of low HDL-cholesterol compared with either android or gynoid percent fat. Distribution of the body fat that forms around the hips, breasts and thighs. Am J Clin Nutr — Furthermore, we had an J Am Coll Nutr 8: —

Intergrative genomic analysis implicates limited peripheral adipose storage capacity in the pathogenesis of human insulin resistance. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Children and adolescents have been experiencing increases in overweight and obesity rates, mainly in low- and middle-income countries [ 13 ].

Thus, clinical assessments can be confounded by these issues. Download as Charactteristics Printable version. J Am Coll Cardiol —9. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study

Another important aspect that deserves to be investigated concerns changes in the VAI with a low-calorie diet. Related articles. Published : 25 March Giordano, M.

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?