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Adrb3 obesity in children: Metabolic syndrome and ADRB3 gene polymorphism in severely obese patients from South Italy

European Journal of Endocrinology, ,

Ethan Walker
Tuesday, March 5, 2019
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  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

  • View Article Google Scholar 8. Go to:.

  • Philadelphia: Saunders;

Background

Neither genotype distribution nor allele frequency differed between the two groups. Independent sample t -test was used to compare the continuous normal data between groups. Association of the beta3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg polymorphism with common metabolic traits: studies of middle-aged white people.

In a recent childdren conducted in Japanese children, Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene was found to affect visceral fat accumulation, and is associated with high BP in the same subjects [ 17 ]. Saunders C. Learn More. Hum Genet, 3 : — Receptor Gene Functional Polymorphism. Kearney, P. Garay-Sevilla ME 3 .

Am J Epidemiol— Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. One of the best strategies to reduce childhood obesity is to improve the eating and exercise habits of your entire family. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 12, Recent Activity. Skelton JA.

INTRODUCTION

ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism was demonstrated to be associated with obesity [ 1114151617 ] and increased tendency to gain weight [ 181920 ]. Evidence for independent genetic influences on obesity in middle age. Roles of beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor polymorphisms in hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

  • HS participated in the design of the study, provided direction, and helped revise the final manuscript.

  • In the obese group, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels, and blood pressure were measured.

  • N Engl J Med— Walston et al.

  • Acta Paediatrica.

  • Discussion Child obesity is becoming an epidemic and a public health problem, which can also lead to adulthood obesity and cardiovascular risks. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

  • The C allele carriers had abnormal levels of adipokines and lipids, and it indicated that the Trp64Arg polymorphism might represent a genetic risk factor for coronary artery disease CAD. Published online Sep

However, Trp64Arg mutation is not a major determinant of this disease or for obesity in Dutch population [ 20 ]. Of the two studies that looked for a link between the ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism and severe obesity, one identified an association Clement et al. However, insulin resistance was found higher in obese males carrying the ADRB3 mutation. Background Excess bodyweight is one of the most important risk factors contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide. Diabetes Care, 24 9 : —

  • You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

  • Kara K. In the present study, our results revealed no relationship between ADRB3 genotype and obesity in children.

  • Correct homeostasis model assessment HOMA evaluation uses the computer program.

  • Insulin resistance was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a Japanese population. Advanced search.

  • Even small changes can make a big difference in your child's health.

  • On the other hand, adrb3 obesity in children Japanese subjects it has been reported that the ADRB3 polymorphism has been associated with insulin resistance but not with dyslipidemia Kadowaki et al. The reduction of the overweight prevalence ranged from 4 to 12 percentage points for boys and from 3 to 7 for girls.

Overall, these observations are in line with the finding that low fat oxidation over time predicts a mild, progressive increase of body fat Seidell et al. Blood adrb3 obesity in children measurement Well-trained nurses and clinical technologists measured blood pressure BP using a fixed protocol. Because BMI doesn't consider things such as being muscular or having a larger than average body frame and because growth patterns vary greatly among children, your doctor also factors in your child's growth and development. Associated Procedures Bariatric surgery Cholesterol test. Methods Study design and participants Comprehensive medical check-up data obtained from the residents of Shika town, a rural area in Japan, were used for the analysis. Due to the relatively weak contribution of the ADRB3 polymorphism to insulin resistance and hypertension, the sample sizes of previous studies may have been insufficient.

Weight was measured using a digital scale Seca Co. Journals Adrb3 obesity in children. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. Lim S. Go to:. In addition, they found no differences between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the wild-type allele in BMI, body fat distribution, fat cell size, fasting levels of insulin, glucose, or lipids, BP, or adipocyte lipolysis in isolated white fat cells [ 3940 ].

Introduction

LabrunaC. Acta Paediatr. References 1. The genotypes of ADRB3 Trp64Arg rs in unrelated subjects based on genome-wide values were extracted from array data. Take advantage of every opportunity to build your child's self-esteem.

Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, Obes Rev ;— Petrone A. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. Among these subjects, were obese boys; girls and were of normal weight 81 boys; 98 girls.

Some clinical studies have adrb3 obesity in children a possible relationship between arterial hypertension and trp64arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, as well as a relationship between this genotype and high mortality among hypertensive patients [ 4142 ]. In addition, the results of the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis ensured that no single data set could dominate the statistical significance of the pooled estimates, indicating the validity of our conclusions. Figure 1 shows the results of monovariate panels a—c and multivariate d analyses of the effect of the gender—genotype interaction on insulin resistance and related dyslipidemia. Table 1. Effect of Trp64Arg mutation of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene and CT substitution of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma gene on obesity in Japanese children. Journal List Adipocyte v. This study was conducted prospectively between March and January

In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the co-dominant model for ADRB1 gene adjusted for age and gender were associated with obesity odds children 1. Inclusion criteria The inclusion criteria for this systematic review are as below: 1 The studies have examined the associations of Trp64Arg polymorphism with adipokines and plasma lipids. Patients and methods: In men severely obese non-diabetic subjects and 78 25 men healthy volunteers, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes.

  • All statistical variables were reported rounded to two decimal places. Ann N Y Acad Sci.

  • In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene with the sex of children with obesity and related pathologies.

  • The allelic and phenotypic frequencies were calculated and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was assessed for each polymorphism. Full size image.

  • J Clin Invest 91— These observations indicated that male Balinese were more susceptible to lifestyle changes that resulted in MetS, when compared to female Balinese.

Diabetes Care, 24 9 : — Obesity results from a chronic positive caloric acrb3 and has strong interactions with genetic and environmental factors [ 5 ]. We concluded that in children from our population, the ArgGly ADRB1 polymorphism shows a risk of obesity after adjustment for age and gender. Google Scholar. Nakamura H. Pediatrics, 1 : 45—

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Genet Anal Biomol E 14— Table 2. Not all children carrying extra pounds are overweight. Li, Y. Related citations. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Effect of Trp64Arg mutation of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene and CT substitution of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma gene on obesity in Japanese children.

Clin Chem 18— Total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol were determined by standard enzymatic methods Hitachi Modular. Mol Genet Metab ;— Parents play a crucial role in helping children feel loved and in control of their weight. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ;—

A logistic regression children was used to calculate the risk of obesity based on genotypes. Childhood obesity can also lead to poor self-esteem and depression. Int J Hypertens ; Hypertens Res. Summary of the fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Fat cell adrenergic receptors and the control of white and brown fat cell function.

Introduction

Results The mean age of obese obesityy was In addition, they found no differences between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the wild-type allele in BMI, body fat distribution, fat cell size, fasting levels of insulin, glucose, or lipids, BP, or adipocyte lipolysis in isolated white fat cells [ 3940 ]. The frequency of trp64arg genotype was similar in obese and normal weight children. N Engl J Med—

Table 2. SO carried out molecular genetic studies and statistical analysis. Table S8. Beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population [J]. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, [J]. Advanced search.

Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, A multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for sex as potential confounder, was carried out to examine whether the relationship between age and BMI depended on ADRB3 genotype. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99, It was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committee of Kanazawa University and informed consent was obtained from all participants. J Lipid Res 34—

Publication types

Ann N Y Acad Sci. Am J Hum Biol 11— We also observed that the prevalence children abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were consistently high in all groups. It was suggested that ADRB3 may be involved in the control of lipid metabolism, from fat assimilation in the digestive tract, to triglyceride storage and mobilization in adipose tissues [ 4 ]. PubMed Article Google Scholar

Association analyses of adrenergic receptor chidren with obesity and metabolic alterations [J]. Diabetes Care, 24 9 : — All authors read and approved adrb3 obesity in children proof of the manuscript before submission. Subgroup analyses were conducted by ethnicity, disease status, gender, healthy subjects, and children subjects. In our study, The specific mechanisms in which the ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism with abnormal adipokines have not been clarified yet. ArgGly beta 1-adrenoceptor polymorphism varies in frequency among different ethnic groups but does not alter response in vivo [J].

Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that the significant associations of the Trp64Arg polymorphism with higher levels of TG, TC, and lower levels of HDL-C were detected in Caucasians and Asians, but not in the other ethnicities. CAD obtains the highest mortality and disability rate in most of the developed and developing countries. LabrunaC. Influence of lipoprotein lipase gene SerStop and beta1-adrenergic receptor gene ArgGly polymorphisms and their interaction on obesity from childhood to adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study [J].

Full size image. Another study revealed that obesity and hypertension are related to polymorphisms in the Dhildren gene [ 34 ]. Polfuss ML, et al. Miall, W. Genes, lifestyles and obesity. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases5 Efforts to identify obesity genes have traditionally focused on white and brown adipose tissues Arner,which play a crucial role in regulating energy storage and fuel mobilization in mammals.

LabrunaC. Acta Universitatis Medicinalis Nanjing. Diabetes 45— Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ;— PubMed Article Google Scholar

Ann Nutr Metab, 52 chilldren : — All included adrb3 obesity had to meet the following criteria: 1 Language: studies published in Chinese or English; 2 Participants: children or adolescents; 3 Exposure of interest: genotypes of the ADRB3 rs polymorphism; 4 Outcomes: obese or overweight. Int J Obes Lond. Published : 19 May As obesity and MetS are preventable, it is important and essential to consider applying intervention to prevent and counteract obesity and its complications, since this approach has been reported to be successful. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, — Results The characteristics of the study subjects are summarized in Table 1.

J Hum Genet, 50 7 : — Diabetes Care ;— Weight Gain. Distribution of beta3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg mutation of Karzak school-aged children in Xinjiang. To be brief, significant association between the ADRB3 rs polymorphism and obese risk was detected in allele model OR 1.

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Conflict of Interest: The authors have no financial conflicts of interest. Height was measured using a portable stadiometer Seca. Insulin Resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation, Overeating and physical inactivity, combined with genetic predisposition, are the main causes of obesity in humans.

  • Pediatrics, 1 : 45—

  • Association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta3-adrenergic receptor with insulin resistance in Polish children with obesity [J]. Qadri, F.

  • Furthermore, the association between the metabolic syndrome Grundy et al. Genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor and an increased capacity to gain weight in patients with morbid obesity.

  • Sanjuliani, A. Am J Clin Nutr ;—

  • Share on: Facebook Twitter. Diabetologia, 28 : —

J Xinjiang Med Univ. Obesify Transl Med. In a twin study with a high similarity in genetic and environmental background, the risk of obesity, IR, or type 2 diabetes unexpectedly increased with heterozygosity for ADRB3 trp64arg [ 37 ]. Control Clin Trials. J Hum Genet, 50 7 : — Meta-analysis of the association of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor with body mass index. Probably the heterogeneity in the genetic background of the Mexican Mestizo population may contribute to the lack of association of this polymorphism with obesity [ 39 ].

  • Misra A, Khurana L: Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. We carried out also a principal component analysis using the correlation matrix of the variables related to insulin resistance dyslipidemia insulin, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol.

  • Journal of Pediatric Health Care. Genes Basel10 1119 Nov

  • Our data show that Trp64Arg polymorphism is significantly related to weight gain with age thus confirming the results of the Olivetti study carried out in a male working population from the same geographical area Strazzullo et al.

  • Weight-loss surgery isn't a miracle cure.

Salud Publica Mex. Cardiovasc Diabetol ; The grey squares represent the weight of the sample size under the random effects model. Diabetes 48— Correct homeostasis model assessment HOMA evaluation uses the computer program. However, a statistically significant difference was found between boys and girls.

Overweight and obesity. Polymorphisms of the beta1-adrenergic receptor gene are associated with essential hypertension in Chinese [J]. Published online Sep Int J Obes 20— Hirose H. Go to:.

BP was measured twice consecutively in a sitting position with chhildren appropriate cuff and averages were adopted as BP data. The sympathetic nervous system plays a crucial role in regulating energy expenditure. Table 2 shows the results of the multiple linear regression analysis of the association between the metabolic variables measured and ADRB3 genotype in patients. Peralta J 2. Weight was measured using a digital scale Seca Co.

  • Correspondence to Safarina G Malik.

  • Table 2 Multiple linear regression analysis of the association between metabolic variables and ADRB3 genotypes in obese patients Full size table. Seals DR, Bell C

  • Nucleic Acids Res 25— BMC Res Notes 4,

  • If material is not included adrb3 obesity in children the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. These divergent results may be, at least in part, due to population sampling variations, differences in ethnicity, sex, age and degree of excess body fat.

  • Obesity is a worldwide public health problem [ 1 - 2 ].

Lofontan M, Berlan M Yet, other report from the same population did children show the ADRB3 polymorphism related with the obeesity syndrome [ 22 ]. Consequently, there patients may represent a good sample in which to evaluate the role of ADRB3 polymorphisms in obesity predisposition. References 1. It's particularly troubling because the extra pounds often start children on the path to health problems that were once considered adult problems — diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The present study had some limitations. The sympathetic nervous system plays a crucial role adrb3 obesity in children regulating energy expenditure. Download: PPT. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed considering the combination of three out of five risk factors according to AHA criteria Grundy et al. In addition to its effect on lipolysis and biological energy production, ADRB3 might modulate peripheral vascular tone and increase BP [ 38 ]. Journal of Biological Chemistry, ,

Genetics of abdominal visceral fat levels. Intra-Abdominal Fat. PubMed Google Scholar 4. Hunting for human obesity genes? Figure 3.

  • Luo, Z. Change in beta1-adrenergic receptor protein concentration in adipose tissue correlates with diet-induced weight loss [J].

  • Change in beta1-adrenergic receptor protein concentration in adipose tissue correlates with diet-induced weight loss [J]. Hum Biol, 77 4 : —

  • The adipokines are becoming an indispensable bridge between obesity, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis [ 181920 ]. Salud Publica Mex.

  • Our data show that Trp64Arg polymorphism is significantly related to weight gain with age thus confirming the results of the Olivetti study carried out in a male working population from the same geographical area Strazzullo et al.

The initial search of the databases yielded studies. A total of Balinese urban children, rural were recruited. Beta-adrenergic receptors and regulation of energy expenditure: a family affair. Previous studies have reported that the ADRB3 gene might regulate the expression levels of adipokines [ 2627 ] and plasma lipids [ 2829 ]. Overweight individuals were excluded from statistical analyses. A p -value of less than 0.

It is also necessary to adrb3 obesity in children the obese groups of different ages in order to ascertain if this polymorphism is associated with hypertension, cardiopathy or another metabolic disorder in adult life. The Arg64 allele frequency was similar between urban 0. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ;— By contrast, the ADRB3 subtype located in white adipose tissue and plays a critical role in regulating lipolysis in white adipose tissue [ 2425 ].

Tables Show all There were no homozygotes. In order to better elucidate the differences between groups, overweight individuals were excluded from statistical analysis.

Eur J Clin Nutr ;— J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. Metabolism 49— Interestingly, this hypothesis may also verify in this meta-analysis. Time of onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic-receptor gene. The Trp64Arg mutation was found to predict a greater tendency for abdominal adiposity and high blood pressure with advancing age in a large working population of males from South Italy Strazzullo et al. Abstract Background Recently, some studies claim that adipokines may modulate plasma lipids.

Walston et al. More Information Cholesterol test. Obesity is due children an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, and increased fat storage results in high positive energy balance. Ask if your child needs to fast before a blood test and for how long. Go to: Abstract. Neither genotype distribution nor allele frequency differed between the two groups. These relationships were the same in other multiple regression analysis models.

Accessed Oct. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 21 2 : — Metabolic syndrome MS was defined according to the modified World Health Organization criteria adapted for children. The results obtained suggested that the Trp64Arg polymorphism of ADRB3 was associated with hypertension and insulin resistance.

Lagou, V. J Lipid Res 34 cbildren, — School closures and lockdowns can impact access to school meals and physical activity times for children, widening inequalities. Find articles by Emel Ensari. Published : 14 February Association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta3-adrenergic receptor with insulin resistance in Polish children with obesity [J]. Other researchers have reported that ADRB3 polymorphism exhibits no effect on obesity, type 2 diabetes [ 21222324 ], or energy expenditure in obese post-menopausal women [ 25 ].

So you might not know by how your child looks if weight is a health concern. Data collection and measurements A family history questionnaire of diabetes and obesity was compiled. Genet Mol Res ;— Contact us.

Diabetes, 46, Int J Addrb3 Lond, 30 8 : — The BMI percentile curve for Turkish children was used to determine obesity [ 29 ]. The prevalence of childhood obesity has markedly increased worldwide over the past 30 years. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 12, Methods ADRB3 gene trp64arg genotyping was conducted in children aged 6—18 years. Jorge A.

Daily habits were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Not all children carrying extra pounds are overweight. Roles of beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor polymorphisms in hypertension and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of obesity in children in the inner northern region of Turkey is

Table 1 lists genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism in obese patients and controls. A p -value of less than 0. All authors approved the final manuscript. Published : 27 May

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83— Some clinical infibeam vishal mehta obesity have indicated a possible relationship between arterial hypertension and trp64arg polymorphism of obrsity ADRB3 gene, as well as a relationship between this genotype and high mortality among hypertensive patients [ 4142 ]. Childhood obesity prevention strategies should therefore remain a priority during the pandemic. Correct homeostasis model assessment HOMA evaluation uses the computer program.

Discuss the pros and cons with your child's doctor. Revised : 30 November Hum Genet, 3 : —

Walston et al. All results were recalculated after eliminating the studies with heterogeneity. Pasanisi Journal of Endocrinological Investigation However, several studies have reported contradictory results [ 2122232436 ].

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr22 511 Sep Overweight and obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationships among hypertension, insulin resistance, and the Trp64Arg polymorphism. Results: Neither genotype distribution nor allele frequency differed between the two groups.

Int J Mol Sci. Homoeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man [J]. Diabetes Care ;—

  • Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in women with dyslipidemia.

  • Metabolic syndrome.

  • Pediatr Obes.

  • In conclusion in our population of severely obese patients the prevalence of the ADRB3 polymorphism did not differ from that of the control group.

  • Zaagsma J, Nahorski SR Roles of beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor polymorphisms in hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

These data agree with the previously reported association of ArgGly polymorphism with Children in Caucasian women [ 10 ]. Inn Health Dis. Endocrinology— PubMed Article Google Scholar 8. Diabetes Obes Metab, 6 6 : — Results The carriers of the C allele Arg at 64th position was encoded by the C allele had higher levels of leptin and lower levels of adiponectin than the non-carriers.

BMI increases with age through adolescence, and the age-related changes obesity BMI differ between males and females [ 44 ]. Introduction Emerging as a serious health problem worldwide, childhood and adolescent obesity, a complex and multifactorial metabolic disorder, could lead to not only improper physical and mental development [ 1—3 ], but also increased risk of medical complications like cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, asthma exacerbation, and metabolic syndrome [ 4 ]. Skip to main content. Obes Res.

Therefore the Trp64Arg mutation appears to affect at least obesityy of the receptor's functions in vivo Candelore et al. Hum Genet, 3 : — The Trp64Arg polymorphism was detected as a loss of a BstN I restriction site, resulting in 30,12 and 7 bp fragments. The log odds ratio OR stands for the natural logarithm transferred OR of individual data sets. Discussion Child obesity is becoming an epidemic and a public health problem, which can also lead to adulthood obesity and cardiovascular risks.

No subject was taking antihypertensive drugs or substances known adrb3 obesity in children affect basal metabolic rate, or glucose or lipid metabolism. The results obtained suggested that the Trp64Arg polymorphism of ADRB3 was associated with hypertension and insulin resistance. Go to: Notes. Reduced resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure are predictive markers of obesity weight gain. Nakamura H. The frequency of Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene in healthy and obese Hungarian children and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. The data about the effect of the ADRB3 mutation on serum triglycerides appear not conclusive.

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Childeen the present study results are controversial and inconclusive, a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression are required to unveil whether this polymorphism affects adipokines and plasma lipids or not. Allele frequencies for each polymorphic site were estimated by the gene-counting method. Recent studies have contributed to further expand the knowledge regarding obesity-related genetic factors, and novel advance molecular biology techniques have accelerated the search for genes related to energy expenditure, such as those encoding adrenergic receptors and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins [ 910 ]. Role of adiponectin in preventing vascular stenosis. PubMed Google Scholar. Summary of the fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

  • Table 3 Clinical characteristics of study participants according to the genotypes of ADRB3 polymorphisms. In conclusion, our study results can aid in elucidating the mechanism underlying complex diseases, such as obesity.

  • Zhou, J.

  • In men severely obese non-diabetic subjects and 78 25 men healthy volunteers, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes.

  • Article Google Scholar.

This can help determine if your child's weight is in an unhealthy range. Talk to your kids directly, openly, adrb3 obesity in children without being critical or judgmental. Maffeis C. However, several studies have reported contradictory results [ 2122232436 ]. J Biol Chem, 18 : — Journal of Pediatric Health Care.

Association of adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with adolescent obesity in Taiwan [J]. To test the association between genotypes and disease traits, as well as between MetS co-morbidities, we used Chi-square. Previous studies un reported that the ADRB3 gene might regulate the expression levels of adipokines [ 2627 ] and plasma lipids [ 2829 ]. CAD obtains the highest mortality and disability rate in most of the developed and developing countries. Although the heterogeneity is not unexpected given methodological nature of the included studies, this complicating factor does impact the ability to precisely calculate the pooled estimates.

Obesity is a worldwide public health problem [ 1 - 2 ]. Discussion Child obesity is becoming an epidemic and a public health problem, which can also lead to adulthood obesity and cardiovascular risks. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Falkner B, Daniels SR. Leptin: adiponectin ratio as an atherosclerotic index in patients with type 2 diabetes: relationship of the index to carotid intima-media thickness.

Figure 2. Download PDF. Supplementary References: The reference list of the included studies in this systematic review. Support Center Support Center. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 10 : —

Children, Patients and methods: In men severely obese non-diabetic subjects and 78 25 men healthy volunteers, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes. Overeating and physical inactivity, combined with genetic predisposition, are the main causes of obesity in humans. Eur J Biochem— Table S3. J Biol Chem.

Diabetes 45— Eur J Endocrinol ;— Cardiovasc Diabetol ; On average, 1 in 2 children used active transport walking or cycling to and from school. Circulation 25—

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