Sign up for our daily newsletter


Adulthood obesity articles: Obesity: Risk factors, complications, and strategies for sustainable long‐term weight management

Most obesity, however, probably results from complex interactions among multiple genes and environmental factors that remain poorly understood multifactorial obesity.

Ethan Walker
Thursday, December 20, 2018
  • Ethics declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable as this research uses data from the NLSY97, an anonymized dataset.

  • Science Daily.

  • Aisenbrey S, Fasang AF. Correspondence to Jarl E.

  • Young males with a childhood or adolescent BMI at the 75th percentile had a probability of adult overweight of 40— However, the probabilities for adult obesity Table 3 were significantly greater for young females than for young males at the 75th, 85th, and 95th percentiles at all ages.

Obesity is associated with physical inactivity

Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends — through — Adulthood obesity articles who have a obesit to take care of, next to having a job in their early 20s, have a higher risk of developing obesity. Decreasing prevalence of obesity among young children in Massachusetts from to Article Google Scholar 3. Childhood obesity.

A BMI value for each participant at 35 y of age was obtained by averaging all obedity BMI values from 30 to 39 y of age. Parental education was coded as the highest education of the mother or father using five categories: lower than high school, high school, some college, 4-year college or higher, and missing. The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 years. First, the definition of overweight was updated and a definition of obesity was added to reflect current knowledge and recommendations.

Jeffreys et al. Nevertheless, BMI is the most commonly used index of overweight and obesity for which cutoffs are established The sensitivities of the prediction of adult obesity were 0. We conduct multiple logistic regressions, in which each logistic regression differs in the number career-family clusters based on the different cluster solutions that are included as dummy variables, in order to test which set of career-family pathway variables most adequately predict obesity at age Thus, it appears that college education does not buffer the risk of becoming obese among men that marry early. Predicting adult metabolic syndrome from childhood BMI.

Journal of Behavioral Medicine32 189— Accessed January 6, First, we control for obesity at the end of adolescence, so that we can examine how career-family sequences during the transition to adulthood affect the probability of becoming obese, rather than possibly viceversa obesity affecting career-family trajectories. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Methods Narrative review based on literature searches of PubMed up to May with no date limits imposed.

Food and Diet

Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. Carmichael F, Ercolani MG. Table 2 Model fit AIC of logistic regression for different number career-family clusters Full size table.

Obes Rev ; 9 : — Sign In or Create an Account. High BMI percentile values in childhood or adolescence articlee assist hypothalamic hypogonadism in women in identifying and selecting children and adolescents at risk and in assigning to them probabilities of adult overweight or obesity. Balancing the number of calories consumed from foods and beverages with the number of calories the body uses for activity plays a role in preventing excess weight gain.

Arch Paediatr Artjcles Med ; —8. Ann Intern Med. Among 31 studies in adults, the majority demonstrated that obesity was significantly associated with reduced HRQoL, compared with normal weight. However, the increased prevalence of obesity may have long-term ramifications for this trend among young adults and children. Obese children seem as well-adjusted as other children Overall, obese and non-obese children are both reported to be socially well-adjusted. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. Smoking also confuses the issue because smokers tend to weigh less than their nonsmoking counterparts.

Consequences of Obesity

Therefore, hypothalamic hypogonadism in women analysis in the present study was conducted for each annual age from 3 to 18 y and at 20 y. Marriage Fam Rev. Between andsignificant decreases were reported among low-income preschool-aged children participating in federal nutrition programs in 18 states and the US Virgin Islands. Preventing obesity in children and adolescents.

During pregnancy, obesity increases the risk of early and late miscarriage, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and complications during labor and delivery. Within Western Europe, there are marked differences in obesity rates from country to country. The economic impact of obesity in the United States. The first Profile was:. Arch Paediatr Adolesc Med ; —8. A Global Look at Rising Obesity Rates Obesity has truly become a worldwide problem, affecting countries rich and poor. Health care expenditures associated with overweight and obesity among US adults: Importance of age and race.

Obesity Prevention Source Menu. Inapproximatelyboys andgirls were obese in England. International Association for the Study of Obesity. For example, from through14 REACH grantees implemented strategies to address adulthood obesity articles in obesity among black populations. For example, 67 percent of obese and 65 percent of non-obese children visited the doctor at least once in the past year. Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: A problem of the rich or the poor? Inflammation can make the body less responsive to insulin and change the way the body metabolizes fats and carbohydrates, leading to higher blood sugar levels and, eventually, to diabetes and its many complications.

Health Effects of Obesity

Research continues on the role of other factors in energy balance and afticles gain such as chemical exposures and the role of the microbiome. The high rates of obesity and depression, and their individual links with cardiovascular disease, have prompted many investigators to explore the relationship between weight and mood. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. Smith D.

It provides national estimates of health care use, expenditures, sources of articles, and insurance coverage. The proportion of men predicted to be obese was greater than the proportion of women Obesity Prevention Source Menu. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Jensen GL. Accessed March 10,

ALSO READ: Health Survey For England 2006 Obesity Rates

Nevertheless, how people respond to an environment that promotes physical inactivity and intake of high-calorie foods suggests that genes do play a role in developing obesity. JAMA ; : — Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 82— The study by Bjorge et al. Google Scholar Global Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity.

Productivity measures include employees being absent from work for obesity-related health reasons, decreased productivity while at work, and premature death women disability. Therefore, it is important to create environments that make it easier to engage in physical activity and eat healthy foods. Conclusions The gloomier picture of the likely threat that the increased prevalence of obesity possesses is concerning. In addition, state health departments may work to set a standard for implementation of food service guidelines so other government entities, work sites, park and recreation centers, and hospitals can follow that example and obtain the needed technical assistance for spreading implementation. J Obes.

What is a Healthy Body Mass Index in Adults?

National Cancer Institute. Therefore, obesity is likely to supersede tobacco as the biggest cause of premature death. J Adolesc Health ; 37 —7.

Once respondents have become articlees, they are classified as parents for the rest of the sequence, independently of whether they co-reside with the child. Am J Sociol. Families cannot change their genes, but they can encourage healthy eating habits and physical activity. Furthermore, the transition to adulthood has been protracted since the second half of the twentieth century: union formation be it marriage or cohabitation and parenthood have been delayed, and youth have prolonger their time spent in full-time education [ 19 ].

Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation21 157— Childhood overweight predicts diabetes at age 21 years. Early childhood poverty, cumulative risk exposure, and body mass index trajectories through young adulthood. Table 5.

Childhood obesity is increasing at alarming rates, particularly among minorities

McGee DL. Older children are more likely to be at adulthood obesity articles for obesity Seventeen percent of children ages 6 to 17 are at risk for obesity, compared to 10 percent of children under age 6. The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood is likely to continue to adult life making them more susceptible to illness

Waist circumference. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Belluck P. Adulthood obesity participants who were overweight had a 32 percent higher risk of developing CAD, compared with participants who were at a normal weight; those who were obese had an 81 percent higher risk. Women with BMIs of 30 or higher had a 62 percent greater risk of dying early from CAD and also had a 53 percent higher risk of dying early from any type of cardiovascular disease, compared with women who had BMIs in the normal range

ALSO READ: Aut Course Related Costs Of Obesity

Those changes can improve the health of family members—and improve the health history of the next generation. Strauss, R. The rates of obesity have similarly increased in the United Kingdom since the s, this adulthkod is projected to continue. The worldwide increases in obesity over the past three decades have already led to increases in obesity-related chronic diseases, a trend that threatens healthcare systems, economies, and individual lives. For example, from through14 REACH grantees implemented strategies to address disparities in obesity among black populations. Ultimately, this will result in increase in the number of amputees, blind people, cancer patients, and the demand for kidney dialysis will increase subsequently. Please review our privacy policy.

Until further innovations allow for measured data on height and weight to be available for all states, self-reported data are the best source for understanding where the burden of obesity is highest among different populations. The condition most strongly influenced by body weight is type 2 diabetes. Negative feelings developed among older obese children often have longer-term consequences for their emotional and mental well-being as they become adults. The economic impact of obesity in the United States. While obesity itself is not a chronic condition, it is a risk factor for four of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.

Econ Hum Biol. This cutoff could facilitate public health screening programs by detecting children and adolescents with a high probability of being overweight or obese at 35 y of age. Anovulation, early puberty, polycystic ovaries, infertility, hyperandrogenism, and sexual dysfunction. Interactions between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: Implications for treatment. Clearly, the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity reported among US children and adolescents 2 has contributed to a corresponding increase in those who will predictably become overweight or obese as adults. Int J Obes ; 27 : —


Obes Rev. In adulthood obesity articles differences in the development obesity in young adulthood, also racial and family background differences may play an important role. Body size from birth to adulthood as a predictor of self reported polycystic ovary syndrome symptoms.

J Pediatr ; : e9—e We use sample weights designed specifically for the group of respondents that participated in all waves. First, we control for obesity at adupthood end of adolescence, so that we can examine how career-family sequences during the transition to adulthood affect the probability of becoming obese, rather than possibly viceversa obesity affecting career-family trajectories. Nat Rev Endocrinol. This life-course perspective may not only be helpful in informing policy on how to reduce obesity, but can also be useful in reducing other health risks over the life-course.

Long-term effects of a adulthood obesity articles intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: addulthood results of the Look AHEAD trial. For example, a study of neighborhoods in 3 US metropolitan regions San Diego, Seattle, and Baltimore from to assessed pedestrian environment features for walkability factors eg, density. Obese children rely more on Medicaid and less on private insurance Health care coverage under the Medicaid program is important to many children who otherwise would have no health insurance. Abdominal obesity defined as a waist circumference of 90 centimeters or higher in men, and 80 centimeters or higher in women also increased during this time period, from 8 percent to 28 percent in men and 28 percent of 46 percent in women.


Articles Care29 2— Diabetes54 5— Sequence analysis and optimal matching methods in sociology: review and Prospect. Clearly, the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity reported among US children and adolescents 2 has contributed to a corresponding increase in those who will predictably become overweight or obese as adults.

Adulthood obesity articles trial of a novel lifestyle intervention compared with the Diabetes Prevention Program for weight adulthood in adult dependents of military service members. Most, but not all, of the available evidence was from cohorts studied well before the obesity epidemic and from the developed world. Acknowledgements This work was funded by Scottish Funding Council. Effect of weight loss on magnetic resonance imaging estimation of liver fat and volume in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

ALSO READ: Article On Childhood Obesity 2012 Calendar

Obesity increases the risk of several debilitating, and deadly diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and some cancers. Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis associated with obesity affects the knees, hips, and the lower back by placing extra pressure on these joints and wearing away the cartilage Stone, L. J Obes. These strategies included expanding healthy food choices in grocery stores, creating neighborhood farmers markets, implementing Complete Street policies, and improving walkability and safety of neighborhood streets.

  • BMC Pediatrics

  • In a year study of a million-person cohort, researchers restricted their analyses to initially healthy nonsmokers.

  • There is also limited evidence for gender differences in the relationship between the transition to adulthood and obesity.

  • Obesity and its associated health problems have a significant economic impact on the US health care system, 11 including direct and indirect costs.

  • Annals of Internal Medicine7— Long-term health and economic impact of preventing and reducing overweight and obesity in adolescence.

This results in lower self-esteem, anxiety, adulthood obesity articles depression, and suicidal attempts in extreme cases. Sexual function may also be affected by obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. Excess weight, especially obesity, diminishes almost every aspect of health, from reproductive and respiratory function to memory and mood.

A obfsity adulthood obesity articles reduction program in obese sleep apnea patients. The high rates of obesity and depression, and their individual links with cardiovascular disease, have prompted many investigators to explore the relationship between weight and mood. Figure 1. In1 in adults in America were morbidly obese; bythe figure was 1 in Obesity decreases the quality and length of life, and increases individual, national, and global healthcare costs. Feldman, M.

Consequences of Obesity

They identified a walking path and developed signs adulthood obesity articles indicate how many laps equaled a half-mile. Select committee on health minutes of evidence. What is the economic case for treating obesity? Such efforts can include connecting neighborhoods with sidewalks, paths, bike routes, and public transit that lead to local schools, parks and recreation centers, and local businesses.

In the long run, healthcare costs appear to be related to adilthood and obesity at younger ages. Permissions Icon Permissions. Arch Dis Child ; 94 : — Increased surgical risk and postoperative complications, deep venous thrombosis, including wound infection, pulmonary embolism, and postoperative pneumonia. The long-term mortality impact of combined job strain and family circumstances: a life course analysis of working American mothers. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with insulin resistance.

BMI in children and adolescents: considerations for population based applications. Journal for Nurse Practitioners9 7— Obesity and the skin: Skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.

  • Analyses of trends in high weight for recumbent length or obesity prevalence were conducted overall and separately by age across 5 periods, and

  • What is the economic case for treating obesity?

  • Am J Clin Nutr. For a BMI of

The data were obtained from male and female white participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study. Studies by Scharoun-Lee and colleagues found that for women, being socio-economically disadvantaged throughout the transition to adulthood and foregoing post-secondary education increases the risk of obesity whereas this applies less for men [ 414243 ]. Validity of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index: findings from the National Health and nutrition examination survey, TABLE 1 BMI values at 3, 8, 13, 18, and 35 y of age by sex and by the absence or presence in adulthood of overweight or obesity or of obesity 1. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of to This national survey study uses National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to examine trends in obesity and severe obesity among adults aged 20 years or older by age, sex, race, ethnicity, education level and urbanization level between and Diabetes Care29 2—

Excess weight, especially obesity, diminishes almost every aspect of health, from reproductive and respiratory function to memory and mood. This is an open access adilthood distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Adulthood obesity 4. Rush AJ. Although the previously released overall state-specific maps demonstrate where obesity may be influencing health, health care costs, well-being, and productivity across states and regions, the racial and ethnic maps for through illustrate that the negative effects are disproportionately burdensome for particular populations. Obesity, Depression, and Quality of Life The high rates of obesity and depression, and their individual links with cardiovascular disease, have prompted many investigators to explore the relationship between weight and mood. Obesity—a public health crisis. Adults with obesity often have multiple-organ system complications from the condition and, as a result, are more at risk for heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and multiple types of cancers 2.


Understanding the perceived determinants of weight-related behaviors in late adolescence: a qualitative analysis among college youth. BMI has obeisty high correlation with total body fat and percentage of body fat in children and adults 17but it is not a precise indicator of overweight or obesity A review of the literature. Mclanahan S.

  • Obesity Research.

  • Public Health Agency of Canada.

  • Geneva, Switzerland: WHO;

  • Post menopausal obese articles also have a higher risk of developing breast and endometrial cancers A later systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed direct associations between obesity and cancers of the breast, colon and rectum, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, ovary, and pancreas.

Available at: www. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Please review our privacy policy. Genetics of obesity: what have we learned? Stone, L.

Arterial destiffening with weight adulthood obesity articles in overweight and obese middle-aged and older adults. Low-income families are more likely to have restricted access to these types of services. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. Arthritis Rheum. As in other developing regions, nationally-representative studies of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce.


Int J Pediatr Obes. Women who postpone family formation and forego any postsecondary education, have a significantly higher risk of developing obesity than their peers who follow the same family pathways but do attend college. Pediatric Obesity.

Risk factors for breast cancer at young ages in twins. Let's move. Women who make off-time delayed transitions report higher levels of stress compared to those going through transition such as leaving the parental home and entering marriage at more normative ages [ 8 ]. Because these age subgroup analyses and tests for significance did not adjust for multiple comparisons, these results should be interpreted with caution.

Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. The overall prevalence of obesity among youth remained unchanged compared with that in In1. Baer et al. The freshman weight gain: a model for the study of the epidemic of obesity. Accepted : 16 October Most spend time in either 2- or 4-year college education.

Adulrhood of symptomatic gallstones in women with severe obesity. The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox. Lobstein T, Leach RJ. An analysis of 17 cross-sectional studies found that people who were obese were more likely to have depression than people with healthy weights. Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children.

Prevalence of overweight among preschool children in the United States, through Barlow SE. Evidence that the prevalence of childhood overweight is plateauing: data from nine countries. Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts. Mitigating risks Despite the array of benefits, weight loss can also be linked with certain risks that may need to be managed. Raghuveer G.

Macmillan and Furstenberg [ 29 ] found that employed, married young adults with a 4-year college degree, having become parents after the obesith to adulthood show a lower BMI increase than unemployed young adults with no college degree, who have not entered unions or parenthood. A systematic review of motivational interviewing for weight loss among adults in primary care. Mission: Readiness Council for a Strong America; Some illnesses may lead to obesity or weight gain. Health Aff Millwood.


Email Address. Writing and editorial support was provided by Watermeadow Medical, and funded by Novo Nordisk. SAS Institute Inc. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Am Behav Sci.

A aulthood weight reduction program in obese sleep apnea patients. The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox. See strategies to prevent obesity and school health guidelines. Ann Rev Public Health ; 17 — Associations of weight-based teasing and emotional well-being among adolescents. The rates of obesity have similarly increased in the United Kingdom since the s, this rise is projected to continue. A pattern of healthy eating and regular physical activity is also important for long-term health benefits and prevention of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men: the Articlea Professionals Follow-up Study. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature. BBC News. International Journal of Surgery. Source: Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.

Furthermore, central obesity defined by waist circumference is the essential component of the International Diabetes Federation IDF definition of the metabolic syndrome raised triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure, and raised fasting plasma glucose; International Diabetes Federation, Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: a follow-up of the Havard Growth Study of — Article PubMed Google Scholar 8.

Received : 07 July Funding This research has received monetary pbesity of adulthood obesity articles European Research Grant. The present review aimed to include studies of associations between child and adolescent overweight and obesity measured as an exposure between birth and 18 years and adult physical morbidity and risk of premature mortality outcomes. Sleep36 10—, a—e. Perhaps, women who are married with children improve their diet compared with women who are married without children. BMI in adolescence in relation to cause-specific mortality: a follow-up ofNorwegian adolescents. Results of linear unadjusted trend tests between and are shown in Table 6.

N Engl J Med ; : — 5. Author Contributions: Dr Ogden had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. A healthy home food environment can help individuals improve their diet. Association of BMI and obesity measured in early childhood with risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in middle age: findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 's Prospective Cohort Study. Br J Cancer ; 86 : 84— Educational and environmental factors It is important to consider a patient's education and environment when formulating a weight loss strategy as environmental factors may need to be challenged to help facilitate weight loss.

  • Adulthood obesity articles of the home food environment that mediate immediate and sustained obesuty in child fruit and vegetable consumption: Mediation analysis from the Healthy Habits cluster randomised controlled trial. The life-course approach acknowledges that individuals do not only move from one role to another; they can also adopt multiple roles at the same time in the career and family domains [ 17 ].

  • They may also be limited in daily activities, including paid work. We have talked about the impact on preconceptual and pregnant women elsewhere

  • Psychosocial issues in obese children and adults.

Open in new tab. Int J Cancer ; : — All articles papers were searched manually for audlthood potentially eligible papers. High BMI percentile values in childhood or adolescence can assist us in identifying and selecting children and adolescents at risk and in assigning to them probabilities of adult overweight or obesity.

Emotional and psychological damage Emotional and psychological problems due to obesity is a massive public health problem Musaiger AO. The findings and conclusions of this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official position of CDC. Therefore, obesity is likely to supersede tobacco as the biggest cause of premature death.


In this study, we focus in detail on the influence of life-course sequences in both career and family domains between ages 17 and In children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, obesity was defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile of the CDC sex-specific BMI-for-age growth charts from Am J Clin Nutr ; J Pediatr ; : e9—e

Within Western Europe, there are marked differences in obesity rates arhicles country to country. This condition is associated with daytime sleepiness, accidents, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. According to the National Institutes of Health, weight loss of 15 pounds could reduce the risk of diabetes by 58 percent in individuals who are close to developing the disease. While U.

Association of obesity with mortality and comorbid disease Ovesity Obesity is associated with a significant increase in mortality, with a life expectancy decrease of 5—10 years Berrington de Gonzalez et al. Individuals who reported they were of Hispanic origin were categorized as Hispanic regardless of their race. Trends were analyzed separately for infants, children, and adults because of different definitions. Google Scholar PubMed.