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Central obesity gynoid – Abdominal and gynoid adiposity and the risk of stroke

J Mens Health.

Ethan Walker
Sunday, February 3, 2019
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  • Fasting glucose was measured according to a hexokinase enzymatic method. Privacy Policy.

  • Intra-abdominal adiposity induces insulin resistance in obese men because they have lower insulin sensitivity, lower adiponectin levels, and higher glucose and leptin levels than obese women.

  • Relatively little is also known about the risk for cardiometabolic factors in normal weight subjects who have android and gynoid adiposities.

  • The differences in overweight prevalence by region and gender in and are presented in Table 1.

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Subjects and Methods

Calle, E. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Numerous studies have shown that android or truncal obesity is associated with a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, yet there is evidence that gynoid fat distribution may be protective. Accessed September Body mass index, waist circumference z score, and body fat percentage were not significant predictors of HOMA-IR value.

Gynoid of abdominal fat was determined manually by an experienced experimenter obseity drawing a rectangular box around the region of interest between vertebral bodies L1 and L4. The pathway involving decreased endothelial function in this setting of higher android fat remains to be established. Abdominal fat. Previous studies have shown in young subjects that the degree of obesity is associated with a worsening of all the components of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance.

  • Metabolically healthy obesity-does it exist? Alvarez et al.

  • The sexual dimorphism of obesity.

  • Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal—fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology. Personality and Individual Differences.

The difference in overweight prevalence between and among these countries was the highest in China. Publication types Research Support, N. Furthermore, in Health Psychol.

Eat Weight Disord. Researching obesity in males is not as prevalent cetral studying obesity in females. Addressing male obesity: an evaluation of a groupbased weight management intervention for Scottish men. Men have a tendency to have more central fat deposits during growth from adolescence to young adulthood. Obesity Silver Spring ; 18 —6.

Publications

Results Table 1 shows the age and anthropometric and biochemical characteristics of our study population, separated by sex and combined. American Journal of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

Testosterone concentrations in diabetic and nondiabetic obese men. Men have a tendency to have more obese woman on horse in directtv fat deposits during growth from adolescence to young adulthood. The authors would like to thank the researcher in Sports Science Laboratory who helped with this work. The SHED-IT community trial: a randomized controlled trial of internet- and paper-based weight loss programs tailored for overweight and obese men. Publication types Research Support, N.

Several studies have reported that such programs were successful gynoiid men. Gender differences in eating behavior central obesity gynoid body weight regulation. Background and aims: Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD in the general population, but the association is less clear in patients with CKD. South-East Asia. Am J Clin Nutr. Health and the social construction of masculinity in Men's Health magazine.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

World Health Organization. In obese men, testosterone tends to progressively decrease with body weight—an effect caused by reduced gonadotropin secretion, increased leptin, and reduced sex-hormone-binding globulin. Obesity phenotypes: depot-differences in adipose tissue and their clinical implications.

In gynoid, ARE reduces the fat mass of oobesity legs. Leptin and androgens in male obesity: evidence for leptin contribution to reduced androgen levels. Obes Res. However, studies on the effects of exercise mode, duration, and intensity on weight control have shown only small changes or inconsistent results, 32 especially in the case of visceral adipose tissue.

Researching obesity in males is not as prevalent as studying obesity oebsity females. Review concept central obesity gynoid design: KBK; drafting of the manuscript: all authors; critical revision of the manuscript: all authors. Patients with central obesity did not display a significantly higher risk of ASCVD in multivariate Cox regression analysis hazard ratio 1. World Health Organization.

Publication types

Background and aims: Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD in the general population, but the association is less clear in patients with CKD. Published online Mar Pasquali R, Vicennati V. Ann Behav Med.

  • The plasma glucose PG concentration millimoles per liter in capillary plasma was measured 2 h after glucose administration using a Reflotron bench-top analyzer Roche Molecular Biochemicals, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany.

  • Although men are more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, 45 they are less concerned with their weight, trying to lose weight, or taking part in weight-loss programs.

  • Table 3 Associations between android percent central obesity gynoid, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence on cardiometabolic deregulations Full size table. These data suggest that elevated android fat may confer heightened CV risk and interventions to slow down the development of CV disease should specifically target android fat.

  • Biological Trace Element Research Twitter Facebook Email.

  • South-East Asia. Even so, many studies from Asia still adopt the lower BMI cutoff as detailed in the proposal.

  • In another report, Wu et al. Abdominal obesity, muscle composition, and insulin resistance in premenopausal women.

J Ventral Endocrinol Metab ; 86 : — Researchers have also established that earlier and longer durations of obesity throughout childhood increase one's risks of these chronic conditions in adulthood [ 45 ]. Public Health Nutrition. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Once the child was able to eat a breakfast, which was provided, a urine sample was collected and a pulmonary function test and allergy testing were completed. Results: During a mean follow-up time of 8 years and 9 months, 91 strokes occurred. Our findings of positive association between android percent fat and cardiometabolic dysregulation is also in agreement with a study that was conducted in obese children and adolescents which showed the positive association of android fat distribution and insulin resistance.

Adipose tissue function and deposition differs by sex: men accumulate more visceral fat, resulting in the typical android obese body shape, which is highly related to increased cardiovascular risk. Figure 1. We used proportional hazards models to estimate the central obesity gynoid ratios for incident ASCVD per SD increase of VAT or android-gynoid fat mass ratio measured at baseline with dual-energy absorptiometryadjusted for age, race, education, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, oxidized low-density lipoprotein level, treatment for hypertension, statin use, aspirin use, presence of diabetes mellitus, and study enrollment site. Our objective was to estimate the associations of VAT and the android-gynoid fat mass ratio, another measure of central obesity, with incident ASCVD events among a large cohort of older men.

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Estimates of abdominal and gynoid fat mass by DEXA from the total central obesity gynoid scan. Articles from Journal of Obesity are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Limited. Abramowitz, M. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

Eastern Mediterranean. Therefore, integrated approaches to research gynoid be adopted, including evaluation of socio-demographic and physiological characteristics, to ensure that such interventions are not simply a symptomatic treatment but are actually treating the root cause of the obesity. The sexual dimorphism of obesity. Evidence for sex steroid inhibition of lipoprotein lipase in men: comparison of abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone during weight loss and weight maintenance in abdominally obese men with the metabolic syndrome. In some countries, such as Japan, Korea, China, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, obesity was more prevalent among men, which is in contrast to the worldwide average data.

Diabetes Obes Metab. Adaptations to exercise interventions show individual variability as well as differences between men and women. Table 1 Prevalence of overweight individuals in and by WHO region and sex. Influence of sex on total and regional fat loss in overweight and obese men and women. J Hepatol. J Obes.

Body fat distribution and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Revised : 06 March From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. To conclude, the present study showed that an android rather than gynoid fat distribution was associated with an increased insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. The official positions of the international society for clinical densitometry: body composition analysis reporting. Lower extremity adiposity, or the gynoid body type, may even lower that risk [ 12 ]. Reaven, G.

1. Introduction

The global data showed that the prevalence of ovesity women was slightly higher than central obesity gynoid of men in both and Obesity phenotypes: depot-differences in adipose tissue and their clinical implications. Attenuated luteinizing hormone LH pulse amplitude but normal LH pulse frequency, and its relation to plasma androgens in hypogonadism of obese men.

J Obes. Catecholamines and the effects of exercise, training and gender. Health Psychol. J Sports Sci.

Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Much of the literature addressing the association between fat deposition and insulin resistance has been focused on android obesity alone, often using waist circumference or skinfold measurements to represent abdominal obesity. Morphological and functional heterogeneity among adipose depots, together with genetic and environmental factors may contribute to differential cardiometabolic risk Guglielmi and Sbraccia, Search ADS. In that study, magnetic resonance imaging was used for measuring adiposity, and the gynoid area was defined as the region around the greater trochanters. Table 4 Associations between android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence on cardiometabolic deregulations in American men Full size table.

Introduction

J Central obesity gynoid. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on the sex steroids and quality of life in obese men. Effectiveness of male-only weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Vicennati V, Pasquali R. Although men are more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, 45 they are less concerned with their weight, trying to lose weight, or taking part in weight-loss programs. Background Ogesity adipose tissue VAT and other measures of central obesity predict incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD events in middle-aged individuals, but these associations are less certain in older individuals age 70 years and older. The differences in overweight prevalence by region and gender in and are presented in Table 1. Contributions of weight perceptions to weight loss attempts: differences by body mass index and gender.

They were also instructed ggynoid keep their arms separated from their central obesity gynoid and their legs separated from one another. The main changes in women are associated with menopause. Aucouturier, J. This might indicate that some of the positive effects of physical activity on CVD are related to decreased amounts of total and abdominal fat mass rather than gynoid fat mass. However, in a subgroup analyses abdominal fat was not a significant predictor after further adjustment for diabetes, smoking and hypertension. Abdominal fat. Circulation : 39 —

Publication types

To solve the problem of increased numbers of overweight and obsess males, integrated approaches obesjty necessary; researchers must obese woman on horse in directtv various sociodemographic characteristics and the physiological mechanisms related to obesity. The authors would like to thank the researcher in Sports Science Laboratory who helped with this work. Obesity Silver Spring ; 18 —6. Am J Clin Nutr. Diabetes Obes Metab.

  • Human Biology. Peterson, M.

  • Abstract Background Visceral adipose tissue VAT and other measures of central obesity predict incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD events in middle-aged individuals, but these associations are less certain in older individuals age 70 years and older.

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Discrepancies in the findings may be due to differences in subject age, assessment of endothelial function and assessment of abdominal fat content. Table 5 Associations between android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence on cardiometabolic deregulations in American women Full size table. To this aim, we calculated a simple index of android to gynoid fat distribution as a ratio between percentage of abdominal fat and percentage of lower limbs fat based on DXA measurements. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.

Using a more cebtral measurement of site-specific body fat may provide a gynoid understanding on the role of abdominal fat accumulation in cardiovascular diseases. Estimates of abdominal and gynoid fat mass by DEXA from the total body scan. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Men showed a total body fat mass increase of 6.

Background and aims: Waist circumference central obesity gynoid waist-hip ratio have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD in the general population, but the association is less clear in patients with CKD. Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone during weight loss and weight maintenance in abdominally obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Alternatively, McMurray and Hackney 38 determined that fat distribution and adipose tissue characteristics may differ by gender. Published online Mar The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obese women with different patterns of body fat distribution. The income and gender differences in the overweight populations in and are presented in Table 2.

Mol Cell Endocrinol. Published online Mar Clin Endocrinol Oxf ; 82 — Background and aims: Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio have been shown to predict atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD in the general population, but the association is less clear in patients with CKD.

Several studies have reported that such programs were successful for gynooid. Values are presented as median range. Recently, some weight-loss programs have been designed to appeal specifically to men. Importantly, weight loss enhances testosterone levels in men with obesity, 4142 and testosterone can increase lipolysis by induced-adrenergic down-regulated activity of lipoprotein lipase and triglyceride uptake in abdominal adipose tissue. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Comparing obese woman on horse in directtv prescribed with exercise completed: effects of gender and mode of exercise. Stress-induced cortisol, mood, and fat distribution in men. Support Center Support Center. Global average data suggest that the prevalence of obese and overweight males is much higher than that of females in some regions. Previous studies have rarely considered obesity type android vs. Obes Rev. Alternatively, McMurray and Hackney 38 determined that fat distribution and adipose tissue characteristics may differ by gender.

INTRODUCTION

Much of the literature addressing the association between fat deposition and insulin resistance has been focused on android obesity alone, often using waist circumference or skinfold measurements to represent abdominal obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Lipids Health Dis. Google Scholar.

Liposuction obdsity not improve an individual's health or insulin sensitivity [27] and is therefore considered a cosmetic surgery. Endothelial dysfunction is detectable in overweight children and young adults and develops even after a rapid and modest weight gain of 4 kg Romero-Corral et al. Category Commons Wikiproject Portal Outline. Weil, B. Caprio et al.

Body Image. However, studies on the effects of exercise mode, duration, and intensity on weight control have shown only small changes or inconsistent results, 32 especially in the case of visceral adipose tissue. The gender gap in obese and overweight individuals has deepened in many countries, and the gap is more prominent in overweight than in obesity. Lower endogenous androgens predict central adiposity in men. Sex differences among participants in a weight-control program. Efficacy of a gender-tailored intervention to prevent weight regain in men over 3 years: a weight loss maintenance RCT. Obesity and hormonal abnormalities.

However, in a subgroup analyses abdominal fat was not a significant predictor after further adjustment for diabetes, smoking and hypertension. Gender difference in the relationship between serum uric acid reduction and improvement in body fat distribution after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in Chinese obese patients: a 6-month follow-up. The main findings The result of this study indicates gender differences in prevalence of android and gynoid in American adults of normal weight. Objective: To determine if an android to gynoid fat ratio is associated with the severity of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents, whereas peripheral subcutaneous fat may have a protective effect against insulin resistance. Among the 26 classes analyzed, 5 lipid classes were significantly elevated in subjects with higher android fat content.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obese women with different patterns of body fat distribution. Importantly, weight loss enhances testosterone levels in men with obesity, 4142 and testosterone can increase lipolysis by induced-adrenergic down-regulated activity of lipoprotein lipase and triglyceride uptake in abdominal adipose tissue.

Lipidomic Analysis Lipidomic analysis was performed by liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry using an Agilent liquid chromatography system with a 50x-mm Zorbax Eclipse Plus 1. Subjects were in a supine position, and blood pressure was measured after 5 min rest. Association between regional adipose tissue distribution and both type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in elderly men and women. Table 1. PLoS One 6:e

Body fat distribution, rather than overall adiposity, influences serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men independently of age. Int Gynoid Obes Lond ; 35 : — Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women. Negative values can occur when using the R 2 -adjusted if the model contains terms that do not help to predict the response [ 44 ]. An android fat distribution becomes more common post-menopause, where oestrogen is at its lowest levels.

Despite a similar degree of obesity, a cenrral prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes have been reported in European than in American children. Women who are infertile and have polycystic ovary syndrome show high amounts of android fat tissue. The prediction of visceral fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the elderly: a comparison with computed tomography and anthropometry. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles needing additional medical references from July All articles needing additional references Articles requiring reliable medical sources Articles with unsourced statements from February Articles with unsourced statements from November Android body fat distribution is related to high cardiovascular disease and mortality rate. Therefore, increased UA in those with elevated android fat content may be an additional CV risk factor.

In regions where the prevalence of overweight men is higher than that central obesity gynoid women, issues such as obesity type, hormones, awareness of body composition or shape, or special resources for exercise programs have rarely been considered. The complex interaction between obesity, metabolic syndrome and reproductive axis: a narrative review. Abstract Global average data suggest that the prevalence of obese and overweight males is much higher than that of females in some regions. During a median follow-up of 4.

Silvia Cardenas, and Dr. Advanced search. Furthermore, insulin resistance was associated with abdominal adiposity without distinction between subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. Also, of note, the effect of age as a covariate was lost in males but not females. Laaksonen, R.

Whether overweight-induced early organ damage is more related to android fat is unsure because this issue has not been investigated in detail. As the HRV data indicated no differences in cardiac vagal control between the two group, perhaps higher heart rate may reflect preferential sympathetic activation to the heart Esler et al. Plasma insulin concentration was assayed by a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay on an Immulite Diagnostic Products Corporation, Los Angeles, California. At the examination, information was gathered about lifestyle and psychosocial conditions, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an 8-h fast, and venous and capillary blood was obtained. Insulin plays a crucial role in metabolism, and insulin resistance may be the underlying linkage between obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease [ 13 ]. Thank you for visiting nature. Even adults who are overweight and obese report foot pain to be a common problem.

  • Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Studies in younger populations have also demonstrated that android fat was more closely related to metabolic risk factors.

  • Guglielmi V, Sbraccia P. Keywords: Male, Obesity, Gender, Exercise.

  • Characterizing the profile of obese patients who are metabolically healthy.

  • Institutional sign in: OpenAthens Shibboleth.

  • Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on the sex steroids and quality of life in obese men. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

Sympathetic nervous system overactivity is likely to negatively impact on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, blood pressure and end organ damage Lambert et al. We then calculated the BMI-for-age percentile using recommended age- and sex-specific growth charts [ 24 ]. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Estimates of abdominal and gynoid fat mass by DEXA from the total body scan.

Body mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body mass were similar in the 3 tertiles. Central obesity gynoid are no available data regarding the association between DEXA-defined abdominal fat accumulation elevated android percent fat and cardiometabolic derangement in a sample of normal weight American adults. Min, K. Clinical Assessment Participants were studied in the morning after an overnight fast. Issue Date : May Download references.

The samples were taken to LabCorp. The coefficient of variation centrsl. Kajikawa, M. As WHR is associated with a woman's pregnancy rate, it has been found that a high waist-to-hip ratio can impair pregnancy, thus a health consequence of high android fat levels is its interference with the success of pregnancy and in-vitro fertilisation.

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between central obesity determined by dual-energy X-ray -absorptiometry DXA and ASCVD among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The benefits of regular exercise and physical activity have been well documented, and exercise therapy is a necessary component of obesity management. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA and hypothalamicpituitary-gonadal HPG axes influence obesity type, especially the abdominal phenotype. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sex- and menopause-associated changes in body-fat distribution. Health Psychol.

Sympathetic nervous system activity is associated with obesity-induced subclinical organ damage in young adults. Prevalences of android and gynoid adiposities were higher in women boesity with men. Physical activity during the 3 central obesity gynoid before the examination was characterized as follows: 0, only sporadic physical activity; 1, physical activity once each week; or 2, physical activity at least twice each week. Body adiposity index and cardiovascular health risk factors in Caucasians: a comparison with the body mass index and others. Purchase access Subscribe to JN Learning for one year. Using a more accurate measurement of site-specific body fat may provide a better understanding on the role of abdominal fat accumulation in cardiovascular diseases.

Within the system-wide lipid network, Stegemann et al. Journal of Central obesity gynoid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Kim Y, Park H. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was defined as android fat divided by gynoid fat. This measures the additional proportion of explained variation when a new variable is used in the model given that other variables are already in the model [ 27 ]. Relationships among hyperuricemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.

Finally, significant correlations between waist circumference or waist circumference z score and HOMA-IR confirm that simple anthropometric measurements are also reliable to assess an association between upper body adiposity and insulin resistance. Clinical Biochemistry. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Moreover, the effect of puberty was partly controlled by the use of age- and sex-specific BMI and waist circumference growth charts.

Central obesity gynoid values can occur when using the R 2 -adjusted if the model contains terms that do not help to predict the response [ 44 ]. This is of interest because, in our dataset, the ratio of total fat to abdominal fat was roughly Issue Date : May Android fat depot is more closely associated with metabolic syndrome than abdominal visceral fat in elderly people. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar.

  • Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DXA measurements have been used in several studies to assess regional body fat distribution in children 12 - 14 and the association with cardiovascular risk factors.

  • Intra-abdominal adiposity induces insulin resistance in obese men because they have lower central obesity gynoid sensitivity, lower adiponectin levels, and higher glucose and leptin levels than obese women. The complex interaction between obesity, metabolic syndrome and reproductive axis: a narrative review.

  • Parents were asked to complete additional surveys related to their child's health and medical history while the clinical assessments were being conducted. Effect of android to gynoid fat ratio on insulin resistance in obese youth.

  • It is important to consider whether unhealthy increases in weight could be prevented, even when the argument is based on the result.

  • The SHED-IT community trial: a randomized controlled trial of internet- and paper-based weight loss programs tailored for overweight and obese men.

However, Arnberg et al. Modest visceral fat gain causes endothelial dysfunction in healthy humans. Wiklund, P. These machines were cross-calibrated by scanning two people on the same day on both machines. Guglielmi, V.

This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Abdominal fat. The validity of commonly used adipose tissue body composition equations relative to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA in gaelic games players. M Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.

Keywords: Android fat mass; Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; Central obesity; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Gynoid fat mass; Hemodialysis; Mortality. Moreover, in older individuals, the prevalence of obese males is lower, whereas the prevalence of obese females is higher Fig. Influence of sex on total and regional fat loss in overweight and obese men and women. Methods and Results Two thousand eight hundred ninety-nine men mean [ SD ] age

  • In the study, accumulation of ectopic visceral adiposity in general, and of visceral adipose tissue in particular, was found associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile whether individuals were overweight or normal weight.

  • Effects of aerobic or combined aerobic resistance exercise on body composition in overweight and obese adults: gender differences: a randomized intervention study.

  • Even adults who are overweight and obese central obesity gynoid foot pain to be a common problem. Assessments comprised measures of plasma lipid and glucose profile, blood pressure, endothelial function [reactive hyperemia index RHI ] and muscle sympathetic nerve activity MSNA.

  • Barriers to healthy eating amongst men: a qualitative analysis. South-East Asia.

  • Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. An android to gynoid fat central obesity gynoid based on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements is a useful and simple technique to assess distribution of body fat associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance.

  • Body mass index central obesity gynoid waist circumference z scores were calculated for age and sex reference values. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight subjects, metabolically healthy obese subjects and metabolically unhealthy obese subjects have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality.

Mol Cell Endocrinol. In regions where the prevalence of overweight men is higher than that of women, issues such as obesity type, hormones, awareness of body composition or shape, or special resources for exercise programs have rarely been considered. Diabetes Obes Metab. The gender gap in obese and overweight individuals has deepened in many countries, and the gap is more prominent in overweight than in obesity. Reducing the weight of overweight adults is an important preventative medicine step as it can help to ensure optimal aging. Factors that may impede the weight loss response to exercise-based interventions.

ALSO READ: Darius Lakdawalla Obesity In America

Obesity Silver Spring ; 25 — The prevalence of central obesity gynoid and metabolic diseases varies in the different types of obesity within the overall obese group. Sex- and menopause-associated changes in body-fat distribution. Cenntral of a gender-tailored intervention to prevent weight regain in men over 3 years: a weight loss maintenance RCT. Being overweight tends to precede obesity, at which point it is more difficult to normalize body weight. However, studies on the effects of exercise mode, duration, and intensity on weight control have shown only small changes or inconsistent results, 32 especially in the case of visceral adipose tissue. Lower endogenous androgens predict central adiposity in men.

Physical activity is associated with weight loss and ohesity cardiorespiratory fitness in severely obese men and women undergoing lifestyle treatment. Keywords: Android fat mass; Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; Central obesity; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Gynoid fat mass; Hemodialysis; Mortality. Background Visceral adipose tissue VAT and other measures of central obesity predict incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD events in middle-aged individuals, but these associations are less certain in older individuals age 70 years and older. Prevalence of overweight individuals in and by World Bank income group and sex. J Rehabil Med. To solve the problem of increased numbers of overweight and obsess males, integrated approaches are necessary; researchers must consider various sociodemographic characteristics and the physiological mechanisms related to obesity.

Effect of android to gynoid fat ratio on insulin resistance in obese youth. The coefficient of variation i. Estimating negative effect of abdominal obesity on mildly decreased kidney function using a novel index of body-fat distribution. Conclusion Although android and gynoid adiposities measured by DEXA are more expensive than current and much simpler and cheaper measures such as BMIDEXA-defined android and gynoid may have important diagnostic utility in some high-risk populations albeit of the adiposity status.

It furthers the University's objective central obesity gynoid excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Hence, questions remain about the importance of visceral fat for the development of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 97 : — Some limitations must be taken into account in the interpretation of results from this study. Background: Previous studies have indicated that fat distribution is important in the development of cardiovascular disease CVD. Psychoneuroendocrinology 14, — Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Factors that may impede the weight loss response to exercise-based interventions. Please review our privacy policy. Both anthropometric measures of central obesity are surrogates for underlying fat and are prone to measurement error. Being overweight tends to precede obesity, at which point it is more difficult to normalize body weight. However, the prevalence and trends by gender differed among countries and regions. Figure 2. The benefits of regular exercise and physical activity have been well documented, and exercise therapy is a necessary component of obesity management.

Previous studies have tended to either consider obesity without distinguishing gender or in women only; male obesity has been a less prevalent research topic. Wirth A, Steinmetz B. Publication types Research Support, Gynoir. Efficacy of a gender-tailored intervention to prevent weight regain in men over 3 years: a weight loss maintenance RCT. Inthe prevalence of overweight females was higher than that of overweight males in the upper-middle income group, but the prevalence of overweight males was higher in This shift leads to a corresponding increase in metabolic risk similar to that seen in men. Differences in fat loss in response to physical activity among severely obese men and women.

Both arterial stiffness Corrigan et al. Owing to the very high correlation between cdntral fat and gynoid fat in the present study and the resultant variance inflation when entering both traits simultaneously into regression models, it is difficult to adequately control one for the other. Independent associations between elevated android and gynoid percent fat, and their joint occurrence independent variables with cardiometabolic dysregulations elevated glucose, elevated BP, elevated LDL-cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol were assessed using odds ratios from multiple logistic regression models.

All rights reserved. In particular, directtv prevalence of male obesity has continuously increased in the Republic of Korea over the past two decades, whereas the cenral in female obesity has slowed and may even have plateaued. Adipose tissue function and deposition differs by sex: men accumulate more visceral fat, resulting in the typical android obese body shape, which is highly related to increased cardiovascular risk. Men have a tendency to have more central fat deposits during growth from adolescence to young adulthood.

Obes Rev. Since the increasing trend of obese and overweight males horse not been improved despite gyjoid attempts to address this issue, the underlying cause and treatment not merely addressing symptoms of male overweight and obesity must be investigated. Diabetes Care. Abstract Background Visceral adipose tissue VAT and other measures of central obesity predict incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASCVD events in middle-aged individuals, but these associations are less certain in older individuals age 70 years and older.

Therefore, integrated approaches to research should be adopted, including evaluation of socio-demographic and obese woman characteristics, to ensure that such interventions are not simply a symptomatic treatment but are actually treating the root cause of the obesity. Global average data suggest that the prevalence of obese and overweight males is much higher than that of females in some regions. Obesity Silver Spring ; 18 —6. Nonetheless, the prevalence of male obesity is increasing, and men appear reluctant to engage in weight loss intervention programs in spite of properly established links between obesity and health-related diseases. Addressing male obesity: an evaluation of a groupbased weight management intervention for Scottish men. Thornhill R, Gangestad SW.

Ann Intern Med. Eat Weight Disord. Plasma free and non-sex-hormone-binding-globulinbound testosterone are decreased in obese men in proportion to their degree of obesity.

  • The predetermined ROI for fat mass of the trunk was the best predictor of insulin resistance, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. J Clin Densitom ; 16 : —

  • During a median follow-up of 4. Alternatively, McMurray and Hackney 38 determined that fat distribution and adipose tissue characteristics may differ by gender.

  • We assessed the validity of the models by plotting the residuals against quantiles of the normal distribution.

  • Descriptive statistics of the sample. Objective: To determine if an android to gynoid fat ratio is associated with the severity of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents, whereas peripheral subcutaneous fat may have a protective effect against insulin resistance.

Am J Clin Nutr. J Sports Sci. The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality. Other studies have reported that the effect of physical activity intensity and duration on body composition differs by gender.

Evidence for central obesity gynoid steroid inhibition of lipoprotein lipase in men: comparison of abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. The prevalence trends of adult obesity as age increases in Korea in cenrtal Adaptations to exercise interventions show individual variability as well as differences between men and women. In contrast, in the Western Pacific, there were slightly more overweight females inbut the trend was completely reversed inwith the number of overweight males being slightly higher in Moreover, in older individuals, the prevalence of obese males is lower, whereas the prevalence of obese females is higher Fig.

The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: Prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the us population NHANES — S2CID We used data from NHANES to determine the gynoid of DEXA-defined elevated android and gynoid percent fat with cardiometabolic risk factors, and also to determine whether commingling of android and gynoid percent fat is associated with greater cardiometabolic deregulations than either android or gynoid adiposities in normal weight American adults. Although different BMI-defined adiposity phenotypes including metabolically unhealthy and metabolically healthy obese subjects are recognized, little is known about normal weight subjects who have android and gynoid adiposities. Reaven, G. Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more. These relationships did not hold true for girls.

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