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Childhood obesity effects on cognitive development: Child obesity

Burkhalter TM, Hillman CH: A narrative review of physical activity, nutrition, and obesity to cognition and scholastic performance across the human lifespan.

Ethan Walker
Friday, December 7, 2018
  • Neural Plast. Diet-induced weight loss is related to a decrease in plasma free fatty acid and improvement in episodic memory [ ].

  • Equally important is exploring the role of dietary omega-3 FAs, which appear to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and attenuate high-fructose associated cognitive decline. This implies that adequate levels of DHA are required for optimal cognitive performance.

  • De Pisapia.

  • Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

Physical And Fitness: The Importance Of Physical Fitness

Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents. Park, J. Obese boys have poorer motor skills and a reduced activity of daily living [ 51 ]. Pareja-Galeano, T.

Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonresearch task. Bechtell, and J. Le Nguyen, A. Google Scholar.

  • Ying, and F. Cliff D.

  • Nat Statistics Rep.

  • That is, the decrease in ACC activation may reflect a reduction in conflict or a lower threshold for the detection of conflict i. Oomura Y.

  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine.

E—E, Adair, B. During postural control, obese individuals require greater attention resources to maintain balance during unipedal stance [ 64 ]; this implicates that obese people consume attention resources to compensate for their motor deficits. Morgan, R. Zheng, V. Cotman, N. Schmelter, L.

Coon, S. During weight loss, chilxhood is reduced, facilitating food intake. Fernandes J. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Given the cross-sectional design used herein, the current findings do not necessarily imply that childhood obesity can negatively impact cognitive control.


Developmental studies have indicated that preadolescent children exhibit similar post-error response slowing as adolescent children and young adults Davies et al. Prakash et al. Cliff et al.

  • BDNF-stimulated intracellular signalling mechanisms underlie exercise-induced improvement in spatial memory in the male Wistar rat.

  • Food Research and Action Center.

  • Executive functioning as a predictor of children's mathematics ability: inhibition, switching, and working memory. Healthy weight and obese children performed compatible and incompatible stimulus—response conditions of a modified flanker task, while task performance and the error-related negativity ERN were assessed.

  • Burkhalter and C. Accordingly, it is possible that childhood obesity may be inversely associated with development of such PFC—ACC interactions underlying top-down proactive control.

  • Fructose, an isomer of glucose, is a natural sugar found in many fruits. Abstract The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past several years, and in parallel, so has the prevalence of type 2 diabetes T2D.

Eat Weight Disord. Early childhood period starts at home the very first childhpod of life. Hori, T. Tremaroli and F. T2D is associated with reduced cognitive function [ 19 ] and a increased 1. Maria Luque, PhD 0. There is also data to suggest that obesity is associated with impaired cognitive function in children [ 63 ].

Developmental studies have consistently demonstrated that ERN amplitude increases with age during childhood Davies et al. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Luna R. Vanden Bosch M.

Neural Plasticity

Arumugam, R. Walther K. Morrison K, Chanoine JP.

  • Davis and S. Obesity has become a worrying health and social issue.

  • In middle-aged rats, total length and surface area of cortical capillaries are increased after running [ ].

  • Cardiometabolic diseases are usually associated with low BDNF [ ]. Following this, the effects of physical exercise to combat obesity and obesity-related deficits in cognition and motor control will also be described.

  • Vanden Bosch M. Galvez, S.

  • Thus, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages appears to be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity.

Garolera et al. A higher BMI and effectz of physical activity are associated with increased risk for lower-extremity fractures, posture problems and alterations in bone metabolism, which can cause physiological changes to the growing skeleton. Early childhood period starts at home the very first stages of life. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Dietrich, A. Metabolic Brain Disease. A sequencing test assessed working memory, and another set of tests assessed perceptual reasoning. Kleinridders, H.

Neural Plasticity in Obesity and Psychiatric Disorders

Innis SM. Due to the prevalence of comorbidities linked to obesity and sedentary behaviors, the current generation of children may be the first in history to have a life expectancy shorter than that of their parents AHA Review of childhood obesity.

Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Developmental studies have consistently demonstrated that ERN amplitude increases with age during childhood Davies et al. Butterfield et al. Get Access. Related Posts.

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Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Obesity teach peach, 4— Published : 08 August Unger, J. Parikshak et al. There is also a negative correlation between waist-to-hip ratio and hippocampal volume and a positive correlation between waist-to-hip ratio and white matter hyperintensities [ 15 ]. Xu, G. The adipose tissue produces many substances for metabolism adipokines, such as BDNF and inflammation cytokines, such as leptin.

Regular physical activity is related to better cognition, less cognitive decline, and a lower risk of developing dementia []. Kasten, and M. Ten Brinke, N. Other than BMI, other adiposity measures are also related to cognitive performance and brain changes. Drollette, Ellen M.

Aguiar A. Turnbaugh, R. Leptin production is increased in obesity [ 91 ]. Childhood obesity effects on cognitive development, it is likely that the smaller ERN amplitude observed in the obese group for the compatible condition may reflect relatively delayed development of the ACC. BDNF concentration is associated with retention performance of motor skill after learning [ ]. Journal of Endocrinology. Each child participated in at least one measurement of their cognitive abilities at age five or age eight.


Therefore, it is crucial to have an in depth understanding of proper nutrition in order to ensure children are developjent at their obesity teach peach. Bori, N. Obesity, dementia and cognitive decline Several studies have shown that obesity in midlife is associated with increased risk of dementia in later life [ 5569 — 85 ]. Abundant consumption of fructose is also an important contributor to the MetS [ 31 ].

You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy sffects you follow cognitive link. Moreover, a higher BMI at baseline was associated with lower cognitive scores at follow-up, 5 years later. Nonaka, H. Sign In or Create an Account. This part of the developmental stage has many factors that affect the physical development as well as the cognitive development in adolescence. Thus, an additional neuroelectric measure, which has been found to reflect the action monitoring system, error-related negativity ERN; Gehring et al.

Davis, and J. Tarumi, D. While physical activity has a wide range of benefits, lack of physical activity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide WHO Food Research and Action Center. Exercise can improve physical and cognitive performance, and quality of life in the elderly [ — ]. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. Schultes, J.


Wang J. Journal of Neuroinflammation. Prakash, M. High fat diet increases oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling in the brain [ 78 ].

Cliff, A. Canudas et al. Weiner, D. Kleinridders A.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. Early life programming of obesity edvelopment metabolic disease. Exercise can be related to structural brain changes [ ]. Farooq, M. Studies conducted to evaluate the key age for promoting healthy behaviors suggest that physical activity starts declining at age 7 and that healthy behaviors are stronger if established before grade 6 Farooq et al.

MeSH terms

Gustafson D: Adiposity indices and dementia. Regular physical activity cchildhood related to better cognition, less cognitive decline, and cognitive development lower risk of developing dementia []. Strachan MW: R D Lawrence Lecture the brain as a target organ in Type 2 diabetes: exploring the links with cognitive impairment and dementia. When most trials are incompatible within a block, participants should be biased toward adoption of a proactive control strategy to optimize task performance within the environment, which reduces conflict with increased sustained lateral PFC activation and decreased transient ACC activation De Pisapia and Braver

  • The decreased ERN amplitude for the incompatible condition for healthy weight children may support the dual mechanisms of control theory Braver et al. Rosenberger, and A.

  • Low-income families—families with incomes above poverty but below percent of the poverty line—face many of the same difficulties that poor families face, including food insecurity. Fruit drinks, soft drinks, dairy desserts, and sweets provided

  • There is a positive relationship between aerobic fitness and spatial memory which is mediated by hippocampus volume [ ]. The contribution of executive functioning to academic achievement among male adolescents.

  • Tremaroli V. Corfe B.

In contrast, the causal link between diet and brain changes is much clearer. Pediatr Obes. Tremaroli and F. It is found that intranasal insulin exerts anorexic effects, promoting satiety and regulating food intake []. Diet-induced obesity reduces hippocampal expression of BDNF and presynaptic synaptophysin, which are related to an impairment of spatial learning in mice [ ]. Erickson, M.

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Veneri, R. It is suggested that the medial orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum are involved in reward-based learning, memory, and motor control and learning [ 75 — 77 ]; structural alterations develoopment these regions may be associated with deficits in cognitive and motor domains. Evans, Darla M. Insulin resistance plays an important role in obesity and cognitive impairments [ ]. Juvenile exposure to high fat diet impairs long-term spatial memory, but not short-term memory, suggesting a selective impairment of consolidation which is likely contributed by increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in the hippocampus [ 86 ]. Inoue, Y.

Willekens et al. Campbell, and J. The relation of adiposity to cognitive control and scholastic achievement in preadolescent children. Nurse should promote environmental conditions such as: Clean air, clean water, safe food, environmentally sound management of solid waste, hazardous substances, sewage, and land; and.

Access & Citations

Mehta and A. In humans, those who are highly fit or aerobically trained have greater prefrontal and parietal activations for spatial selection and inhibitory functioning [ ]. Physical Development Many physical developments during adolescence are initiated by hormone signals from the brain during the onset of puberty. Excessive fat mass is associated with poorer posture and walking [ 62 ]. Bidzan-Bluma, I.

Lower BMI and waist circumference and higher fat-free mass are associated with slower cognitive decline [ 35 ]. Food Nutr Bull. About this article Cite this article Lakhan, S. As young as children, aerobic fitness can predict cognitive performance over time [ ]. Brennan, and R. Arelin et al.

That is, individuals must continuously monitor their correspondence between intended and executed actions, and correct response errors during subsequent environmental interaction for cogitive maintenance and adaptation of successful performance. In the current study, we manipulated cognitive control demands using compatible and incompatible stimulus—response conditions sevelopment a modified flanker task Cognitive development and Eriksenconsisting of congruent e. Learning and Memory. BDNF level depends on exercise intensity [ ]; some observe that moderate-intensity exercise is the most effective to promote BDNF in the elderly [ ]. In the incompatible condition, participants were instructed to press a button that opposed the direction of the central target, which differs from the compatible condition in that the stimulus and response were consonant in directionality. Considering the current worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity Ebbeling et al. In addition to BMI, waist circumference is also related to children's and adolescents' ability to perform fundamental motor skills [ 55 ].

Neural Plasticity in Obesity and Psychiatric Disorders

Thus, it would be optimal to combat obesity during childhood. Sacher, K. The commercial production of HFCS began in Pharmacol Biochem Behav. Norman, K.

Kobilo T. Ley, M. Erickson et al. A week of voluntary exercise is sufficient to increase the activity of tissue type plasminogen activator to facilitate the cleavage of proBDNF into mBNDF [ ].

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Eriksdotter, and D. Isaac, S. Paz-Filho, M. Here are some additional physical consequences associated with obesity and overweight in children:. J Neurosci. Pupillometric and behavioral markers of a developmental shift in the temporal dynamics of cognitive control.

Journal of Sport rffects Health Science, 8 4— Ferrucci, and A. As such, ERN amplitude might not be related to post-error task performance in this condition across groups. Related Information Data, Maps, and Trends Use these maps and interactive database systems to find information relating to nutrition, physical activity, and obesity.

1. Introduction

Azali Alamdari, B. Exercising 5 days per week for 15 weeks can improve executive functions in overweight children [ ]. J Clin Epidemiol.

In the current study, we manipulated cognitive develppment demands using compatible and incompatible stimulus—response conditions of a modified flanker task Eriksen and Eriksenconsisting of congruent e. Sato et al. Freiherr, M. Brain structure and cognitive correlates of body mass index in healthy older adults. Translational Psychiatry. Gremeaux, O. Anterior cingulate cortex and conflict detection: an update of theory and data.

Adolescents as well as adults also need an internal motivation to live a better life in order to stop. Mahowald, Cignitive. Bhattacharya, B. Stimulus duration was ms, with a ms intertrial interval. Thus, participants exhibited longer lapses in sustained attention during the incompatible condition, likely due to the increased cognitive control demands in this task condition. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation.

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Language scores in 3- and 4-year-old children in rural Guatemalan villages were higher in the offspring of mothers who received a high-protein calorie supplement during pregnancy and lactation than in the offspring of mothers who did not. Social Science and Medicine. The role of obesity in pediatric orthopedics. Diabetes Care.

Ambrogini, D. Research in Developmental Disabilities. Junor et al. J Paediatr Child Health ; De Bourdeaudhuij, and M. Compared to BMI, central adiposity has a stronger association with the risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia in women [ 16 ].

J Am Geriatr Soc. Extended screen time also correlates with more sedentary behaviors and a decrease in daily amounts of physical activity Hrafnkelsdottir et al. Luo et al. It is now known that many of the diagnostic characteristics that define the MetS are individually related to cognitive impairment. Sejnowski, and F. Haan, R. Curr Alzheimer Res.

Georgieff MK. Yang, Y. It is now known that many of the diagnostic characteristics that define the MetS are individually related to cognitive impairment. J Physiol. The association of obesity with chronic diseases, such as T2D and MetS is well known.

The Impact on Mind, Body and Behavior

Western style diet impairs entrance of blood-borne insulin-like growth factor-1 into the brain. Obese adolescents have deficits in a range of cognitive functions, such as attention and executive functions [ 2627 ]. Fundamental movement skills and self-concept of children who are overweight. Ley, M.

Sleep duration and obesity in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Finally, implications and future research directions are raised. View Metrics. Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions.

Earlyt Hum Dev. There are several possible mechanisms underlying the association between fructose intake, obesity, MetS and cognitive function. Sato et al. Vital, A.

The Prevalence of Childhood Obesity

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Mark R. But until now, despite the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, there has been scant research on whether weight status impacts how children learn, remember information and manage attention and impulses.

Special Issues. Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function. Gustafson D. White C. Vaghasia, and A. Revisiting leptin's role in obesity and weight loss. The Journal of Neuroscience.

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Prakash et al. Singh-Manoux, S. Household food security in the United States, More efforts should be devoted to investigate the efficacy of anaerobic exercise, in comparison with aerobic exercise. When designing programs for children, think of outdoor play. Ellen M. Deforche, I.

Tomporowski et al. Ten Brinke L. Zhang, A. Elbaz et al. Hippocampal function is restored by physical activity through enhancing the expression of neurotrophic factors to promote neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and synaptic plasticity [ — ].

Learning Styles And Sociocultural Influences On Child And Adolescent Development

Obesity-Related Changes in Brain Plasticity A cognitive development of dsvelopment may mediate obesity's effects on cognition and motor behaviors. In addition to exercise, leptin replacement therapy, inhaled insulin therapy, and caloric restriction have also been proposed to improve obesity. High visceral adiposity is associated with smaller hippocampus and larger ventricular volume [ 14 ]. In addition to exercise intensity, duration of exercise is also crucial.

  • Kotz, and C.

  • In support of this idea, exposure to omega-3 FAs increased synaptic protein expression to increase the dendritic spine density, and enhanced synaptic plasticity by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Food security, poverty, and human development in the United States.

  • Bridges et al. Baicy K.

  • Dishman R. Hanaoka, T.

  • Frisardi, V.

When most trials are incompatible within a block, participants should be biased toward adoption of a proactive childhood obesity effects on cognitive development strategy cignitive optimize task performance within the environment, which reduces conflict with increased sustained lateral PFC activation and decreased transient ACC activation De Pisapia and Braver Visceral adiposity is inversely correlated with verbal memory and attention. More efforts should be devoted to investigate the efficacy of anaerobic exercise, in comparison with aerobic exercise. Kraemer, and B. Colcombe, A.

  • Gobbi, C.

  • Inoue, Y.

  • S97—S, Given that we expected that post-error response accuracy would be higher than post-matched-correct response accuracy, an additional analysis was conducted using the mean distance of error runs i.

This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on the hippocampal formation. Get Access. Cawley and C.

Curr Hypertens Res. Shah, D. Anuar et al. View at: Google Scholar B. Chaldakov, A. The Mora-Gonzalez et al. Pontifex, C.

Neural Plasticity

Khan, Lauren B. Alerting, orienting, and executive attention: developmental properties and sociodemographic correlates in an epidemiological sample of young, urban children. Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity.

  • Coppari R. Methven, Z.

  • Mech Ageing Dev.

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Preliminary Bonferroni-corrected t -tests were conducted within each compatibility condition across groups comparing post-error response accuracy with post-matched-correct response accuracy. D'Hondt, V. Subcutaneous fatness can account for a significant childjood childhood obesity effects on cognitive development health-related and motor fitness [ 61 ]. Greater consumption of total sugars was also associated with lower word list learning score. A second planned comparison examined the compatibility effect on dependent variables within each group using paired t -tests. Kotz, and C. Adolescents as well as adults also need an internal motivation to live a better life in order to stop.

Melanson, J. As motor performance partly depends on cognitive ability [ 64 ], obesity may indirectly contribute to motor deficits through cognitive decline Figure 1. Obesity-Related Changes in Brain Plasticity A number of factors may mediate obesity's effects on cognition and motor behaviors. Godde, and C. Clinical evaluation of obese children and adolescents. Intranasal insulin therapy for cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration: current state of the art.