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Fast food and child obesity articles: Fast Food Linked To Child Obesity

BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

Ethan Walker
Thursday, November 8, 2018
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  • Consent for publication Not applicable. Brazil is geopolitically divided into five macro-regions, each of which has its own economical and sociocultural pattern.

  • Ghosh A.

  • Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death. Two systematic reviews suggest the need for more studies using larger study samples and adjusting for confounding factors such as parental BMI [ 1213 ].

  • The obesity prevalence was much higher in boys, and the FFC and hypertension prevalence was higher in older children.

  • Ji CY.

Junk Food and Childhood Obesity

PubMed Google Scholar 7. Definition of Childhood Obesity Although definition of obesity and overweight has changed over time, it can be defined as an excess of body fat BF. PubMed Google Scholar. Accepted : 22 November Health Educ.

High fructose corn syrup leads to obesity rates appearance of these curves Figs 1 — 3 leaves little room for doubt as to the existence, in Brazil, of a correlation between the number of McDonald restaurants per million inhabitants and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The investigated students were 7—16 Home Publications Conferences Register Contact. Three age sub-groups were analyzed: 5 to 9-year-olds, 10 to year-olds and over year-olds. Browse Subject Areas? Karegoudar Purification and Characterization of Amidase from Paracoccus sp.

Download citation. Dublin: Department of Health and Children; Many families, especially those with two parents working outside the home, opt for these places as they are often favored by their children and are both convenient and inexpensive. China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. You might also like. There were both pros and cons of using these methods.

Published : 06 December Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated risk factors among school children and adolescents in Tianjin, China. Chrome Safari Continue. Association of beverage consumption with obesity in Mexican American children. Therefore, more studies, especially longitudinal studies based on large national representative samples with exact measures of quantity of FFC intake and its contribution to total daily energy intake, are needed to detect the association between FFC and health outcomes. It has reached Browse Subject Areas?

Introduction

Prevalence and trends in obesity among China's children and adolescents, Table 4 shows the prevalence of health outcomes overweight, obesity, central obesity, and hypertension by FFC. In addition, BMI fails to distinguish between fat and fat-free mass muscle and bone and may exaggerate obesity in large muscular children. A study by conducted by Williams et al. Int J Pediatr Obes.

Google Scholar These results should be taken into consideration by education and prevention campaigns. The associations between FFC and health outcomes were further assessed using mixed models, controlling for some child and maternal factors see Table 5. Mentzer, Jr. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity.

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Abd choices Individual food choices depend on a variety of factors, including:- Behavioral Cultural Environmental Socioeconomic influences Food choices affect energy intake, working with physiological factors to determine body weight. J Am Coll Nutr. Indian J Community Med. This means that you are taking a huge amount of unhealthy calories in fast food. Differences in BP measurements and the study populations could have contributed to these differences. Ann Glob Health.

  • Med J Aust. Therefore, more studies, especially longitudinal studies based on large national representative samples with exact measures of quantity of FFC intake and its contribution to total daily energy intake, are needed to detect the association between FFC and health outcomes.

  • It is because more people will become obese eating unhealthy fast food.

  • Fast food consumption and its associations with obesity and hypertension among children: results from the baseline data of the Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities. Mahmoud Parasitological and comparative pathological studies on monogenean infestation of cultured sea bream Sparus aurata, Sparidae in Egypt.

While obewity have become large, the person will always eat the whole meal regardless of whether he feels full. Basal metabolic rate, or metabolism, is the body's expenditure of energy for normal resting functions. The findings suggest that fast-food consumption has increased fivefold among children sinceLudwig said. More studies are warranted to examine the trend and risk factors for hypertension among children in China.

You can also search for amd author in PubMed Google Scholar. The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Availability of data and materials The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. However the latter is unlikely, as the correlation between fast food consumption and childhood obesity has been demonstrated worldwide. Conclusions The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China.

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There are also indicators of worsening of other fast food and child obesity articles problems like elevated blood pressure Foodd [ 7 ]. J Nutr. The data contain rich information such as child growth and health, family characteristics, home, community and school environment, dietary intake, physical activity, and social networks. In Western countries, although a positive association has been suggested between frequent FFC and weight gain in adults [ 242526 ], there is limited and mixed evidence for children [ 272829303132 ]. I confirm that others can recreate the findings of our study using only data purchased from the AggData website without additional data.

Methods Study design and participants The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities is a longitudinal study aimed at examining the etiology of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in China, especially in its major cities, which have been fast food and child obesity articles rapid economic and social transitions over the past three decades. The search terms used were "Brazil" and "McDonald's". The prevalence was higher than the national average. Fast food is strongly suspected of contributing to this epidemic of obesity. It has been found out that in stomach, there are a number of microbial species present that help the body cells to fight against obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel conditions, heart diseaseetc. Associations between FFC and obesity, central obesity, and hypertension were not detected.

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The social consequences of obesity may contribute to and child obesity difficulty in weight management. The nationally representative study included boys and girls from all regions of the country and different socio-economic levels. A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality. Obes Rev. Obesity prevalence was much higher in boys than in girls The data contain rich information such as child growth and health, family characteristics, home, community and school environment, dietary intake, physical activity, and social networks. To address these research gaps, this study aimed to: a examine the current FFC both Western FF and Chinese FF patterns among school-age children in four mega-cities across China; b explore factors being associated with FFC; and c assess the association between FFC and selected health outcomes i.

There may be some non-fried food e. Am J Matern Child Nurs. PubMed Google Scholar. The U. In each selected primary school, one class was selected at random from the 3rd to the 6th grades, while in each middle school, one class was selected at random from the 7th to the 9th grades. Food purchased away from home as a predictor of change in BMI z-score among girls.

The prevalence of obesity is further increased by the fact that they are widely accessible and cost-effective. Get browser notifications for breaking news, live events, and exclusive reporting. Fourth, study participants were 7—16 years old students from four mega-cities across China, which are more developed than other small cities and rural areas of China. Is China facing an obesity epidemic and the consequences? School-based health education strategies for the improvement of body image and prevention of eating problems: An overview of safe and successful interventions. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries.

Background

Correspondence to Youfa Wang. More studies are warranted. Health and Economic Burden of Obesity in Brazil.

Get obesify notifications for breaking news, live events, and exclusive reporting. The appearance of these curves Figs 1 — 3 leaves little room for doubt as to the existence, in Brazil, of a correlation between the number of McDonald restaurants per million inhabitants and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We also thank Dr. Chinese children in urban areas consumed FF much more frequently than those in rural areas. There were both pros and cons of using these methods.

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This in turn inevitably results in weight gain, as the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of energy burned. Obesity has taken the form of an epidemic in the United States, leading to significant health problems. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years. The dietary factors that have been examined include fast food consumption, sugary beverages, snack foods, and portion sizes. School-based health education strategies for the improvement of body image and prevention of eating problems: An overview of safe and successful interventions. There are also indicators of worsening of other health problems like elevated blood pressure BP [ 7 ].

Globally inthe number of overweight children under the age of five is estimated to be over 42 million. These potential consequences aand further examined in the following sections. Eur Eat Disord Rev. Kapil U, Bhadoria AS. Eating-disordered behaviors, body fat, and psychopathology in overweight and normal-weight children. The ecological model, as described by Davison et al. The social consequences of obesity may contribute to continuing difficulty in weight management.

Junk food kills fast food and child obesity articles microbial species leading foof increased level of occurrence of obesity and its related diseases. Consent from parents and school administrators and assent from children were obtained before investigation. Characteristics of the studied populations and the presence of McDonald restaurants in the five Brazilian regions. The new study results bolster evidence that fast food contributes to increased calorie intake and obesity risk in children, Yale University obesity researcher Kelly Brownell said in an accompanying editorial. Zhao, Y.

Accepted : 22 November Some reported a positive association [ 103334353637 oebsity, while some fast food and child obesity articles not [ 3839 ]. Obesity and calorie intake Studies have shown that this rise in obesity among the people of the world could be attributed to an elevated consumption of calories combined with a lack of sufficient physical activity. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 36 percent of American adults and 17 percent of under 19 American youth are obese. Am J Prev Med.

  • School-based programs are also needed to provide effective health education and health promotion for children.

  • More studies are warranted to examine the trend and risk factors for hypertension among children in China. According to it, a diet containing 2, calories of fast food costs much less than a diet containing 2, calories of nutritious food.

  • Are child eating patterns being transformed globally?

  • Junk food availability in schools has greatly increased the rates of occurrence of obesity. R squared.

  • Thus, our results could not represent children and adolescents living in small cities or rural areas of China.

  • Some studies have shown a small association between FFC and increased BMI [ 12272829 ], while others did not detect a significant association [ 303132 ]. Google Scholar.

Download citation. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that an arhicles genetic background is important in determining obesity risk. Correlates of overweight status in Chinese youth: an east-west paradox. The majority of children in the past walked or rode their bike to school. Peer Review reports. Research has made important contributions to our understanding of the factors associated with obesity.

Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged fast food and child obesity articles years. Guidelines Upcoming Special Issues. The new study results bolster evidence that fast food contributes to increased calorie intake and obesity risk in children, Yale University obesity researcher Kelly Brownell said in an accompanying editorial. Two systematic reviews suggest the need for more studies using larger study samples and adjusting for confounding factors such as parental BMI [ 1213 ]. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure. WHO Obesity and overweight [Internet].

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Some studies have reported that sodium intake was associated with elevated fast food and child obesity articles blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP fasst among adults [ 151617181920 ] and children [ 212223 ]. Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped relationship suggests that boys with BMIs at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction. The associations between FFC and health outcomes were further assessed using mixed models, controlling for some child and maternal factors see Table 5. J Epidemiol Community Health.

  • Home Publications Conferences Register Contact.

  • J Epidemiol Community Health.

  • Some reported a positive association [ 103334353637 ], while some did not [ 3839 ].

  • You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

  • Overeating among adolescents: Prevalence and associations with weight-related characteristics and psychological health.

Conclusion A strong correlation between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the number of McDonald restaurants was fast food and child obesity articles for Brazilian children and was most important within the group of youngest children. The findings suggest that fast-food consumption has increased fivefold among children sinceLudwig said. David Ludwig, director of the obesity program at Children's Hospital Boston. Am J Health Behav. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Alarming trends in ideal cardiovascular health among children and adolescents in Beijing, China, to BMC Public Health. Received : 15 May Compensation for energy intake from fast food among overweight and lean adolescents.

It is because more people will become obese eating unhealthy fast food. Food purchased away from home as a predictor of change in BMI child obesity articles among girls. The fst then determined which factors were most related to dietary adequacy and risk for obesity. Other reasons parents gave for driving their children to school included no safe walking route, fear of child predators, and out of convenience for the child. Feeling fat rather than being fat may be associated with psychological well-being in young Dutch adolescents.

  • The appearance of these curves Figs 1 — 3 leaves little room for doubt as to the existence, in Brazil, of a correlation between the number of McDonald restaurants per million inhabitants and the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  • There was no difference in income status for all adults in calories eaten from fast food. It is often difficult for overweight children to participate in physical activities as they tend to be slower than their peers and contend with shortness of breath.

  • Fig 3.

  • Dietary sodium intake deleteriously affects blood pressure in a normotensive population.

  • References 1.

  • PubMed Google Scholar.

There are four basic fiod why fast food is linked to obesity. Conclusion The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. Studies have shown that food intake consumed away from home has also increased alarmingly over the last four decades. Differences in BP measurements and the study populations could have contributed to these differences. J Am Coll Nutr.

Childhood obesity has been linked to numerous medical conditions. Maternal factors affect child outcomes. Body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depression, and weight status in adolescents. Patrick H, Nicklas T.

Publication types

Key study variables Health outcome variables Obesity, central obesity, and elevated BP were key outcome variables. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and associated risk factors among school children and adolescents in Tianjin, China. Then, school was included in the models as a random effect intercept. Some studies have shown a small association between FFC and increased BMI [ 12272829 ], while others did not detect a significant association [ 303132 ]. Results were similar when Chinese fast food consumption was adjusted for.

  • Differences in BP measurements and the study populations could have contributed to these differences.

  • First, characteristics of participants were described, for continuous variables, presented as means standard deviation, SD ; for categorical variables, as counts and percentages. A review of the growth of the fast food industry in China and its potential impact on obesity.

  • There are also indicators of worsening of other health problems like elevated blood pressure BP [ 7 ].

  • Convenience Fast food restaurants provide ease.

  • Prevalence and factors associated with body mass index in children aged 9—11 years. The U.

Fast-food consumption must be obezity as a main target in the battle against childhood obesity. FF is high in unhealthy fats, salt, and sugar, which contributes to obesity and elevated BP [ 11 ] and has been positively associated with the obesity epidemic due to its increasing availability, energy density, and large portions [ 121314 ]. References 1. There is no specific evidence of the relation between fast food and childhood obesity.

Non-Hispanic black adults ate a higher percentage of fast-food calories compared to non-Hispanic white and Hispanic adults. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient. There are also several methods to measure the percentage of body fat. However, we did not detect associations between FFC and obesity, central obesity, and hypertension. Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

Associations between FFC and obesity, central obesity, and hypertension were not detected. It is emerging convincingly that the genesis of Type 2 Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease begins in childhood, with childhood obesity serving as an important factor. Association between eating out of home and body weight. Obes Rev.

Chinese children in urban areas consumed FF much more frequently than those in rural areas. According to it, a diet containing 2, calories of fast obdsity costs much less than a diet containing 2, calories of nutritious food. Furthermore, maturation pattern differs between genders and different ethnic groups. A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality. Share Tweet Pin It Share. Snack foods Another factor that has been studied as a possible contributing factor of childhood obesity is the consumption of snack foods.

  • Methods Study design and participants The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities is a longitudinal study aimed at examining the etiology of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in China, especially in its major cities, which have been experiencing rapid economic and social transitions over the past three decades.

  • Fast food also results in the disappearance of nutritious meals and diets.

  • However the latter is unlikely, as the correlation between fast food consumption and childhood obesity has been demonstrated worldwide.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents.

  • We studied the correlation between the number of McDonald restaurants and overweight and obesity prevalence by region stratified by gender and age.

  • Prevalence and secular trends in obesity among Chinese adults,

Some child and maternal factors were associated with these health outcomes. Obesity, central obesity, and cuild BP were key fast food and child obesity articles variables. Brownell said there are encouraging signs that policy-makers are taking action to protect children from the fast-food trend, including efforts to limit soft drink and snack food sales in schools, and to curb food advertising aimed at children. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. The datasets analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Dynamic relations between fast-food restaurant and body weight status: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis of Chinese adults.

The highest correlation—i. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. According to a recent report, J Intern Med.

Background

Opportunities to articles physically active and safe environments to be active foos have decreased in the recent years. For large population-based studies and clinical situations, bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA is widely used. It is often difficult for overweight children to participate in physical activities as they tend to be slower than their peers and contend with shortness of breath. BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health.

  • Prevalence and secular trends in obesity among Chinese adults,

  • Childhood obesity: A call to action. No significant associations between fast food consumption and health outcomes were detected.

  • A strong or very strong correlation between the prevalence of Brazilian children affected by overweight or obesity and the number of McDonald restaurants was found in many subgroups of gender and age class. The prevalence of overweight including obesityobesity, and central obesity of the study students was

  • In the United States, one third of the population is affected by obesity.

  • There was no difference in income status for all adults in calories eaten from fast food. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate.

It is clear that children who are affected by overweight and especially obesity have an increased risk of being affected by obesity articles adulthood. Prevalence foood behavioral risk factors of overweight and obesity among children aged in Beijing, China. Brownell said the study refutes a July report from the U. The numbers, though alarming, are not surprising since billions of dollars are spent each year on fast-food advertising directed at kids, said lead author Dr. We used R software v3. The nationally representative study included boys and girls from all regions of the country and different socio-economic levels. Reducing sodium intake in children: a public health investment.

Introduction Obesity and overweight strongly contribute to increasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, fast food and child obesity articles are becoming a worldwide health issue. Discussion Using data collected from four mega-cities across China, we have reported on FFC and its associated factors among elementary and middle school students. Article PubMed Google Scholar Mahmoud Parasitological and comparative pathological studies on monogenean infestation of cultured sea bream Sparus aurata, Sparidae in Egypt. Results Among the children, Characteristics of the studied populations and the presence of McDonald restaurants in the five Brazilian regions. Junk food kills these microbial species leading to increased level of occurrence of obesity and its related diseases.

While higher FFR access was not associated with weight-related behaviours eg, dietary quality score and frequency of food consumption in most studies, it was commonly associated with more fast-food consumption. The prevalence of FFC, obesity, and hypertension is high among children in mega-cities in China. As a concluding statement, fast food is the main cause of obesity. While BMI seems appropriate for differentiating adults, it may not be as useful in children because of their changing body shape as they progress through normal growth. Received : 15 May

The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesiyy among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet? Chin J Evid Based Pediatr. Using waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio to access central obesity in children and adolescents. Socio-cultural factors have also been found to influence the development of obesity.

Am J Clin Nutr. You might also like. References 1. It is often difficult for overweight children to participate in physical activities as they tend to be slower than their peers and contend with shortness of breath.

Fast-food lovers consumed more fats, sugars and carbohydrates and fewer fruits and non-starchy vegetables than youngsters who didn't eat fast food. Nevertheless, a growing body of high fructose corn syrup leads to obesity rates suggests FFC contributed to increased caloric intake and obesity risk [ 1012 ]. Then, school was included in the models as a random effect intercept. Two systematic reviews suggest the need for more studies using larger study samples and adjusting for confounding factors such as parental BMI [ 1213 ]. In addition, family mealtimes can influence the type of food consumed and the amount thereof.

More attention should be given to adn, and health education should begin at young ages and cover parents. Nevertheless, a growing body of research suggests FFC contributed to increased caloric intake and obesity risk [ 1012 ]. Key study variables Health outcome variables Obesity, central obesity, and elevated BP were key outcome variables. J Hypertens. David Ludwig, director of the obesity program at Children's Hospital Boston.

FF is high in unhealthy fats, salt, and sugar, which contributes to obesity and elevated BP [ 11 ] and has been positively associated with the obesity epidemic due to its increasing availability, energy density, and large portions [ 121314 ]. Impacts of fast food and the food retail environment on overweight and obesity in China: a multilevel latent class cluster approach. Eating disorder traits in obese children and adolescents. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Fast food also impacts children and youth more than adults.

Am J Hypertens. Maternal factors affect child outcomes. Regulation of marketing for unhealthy foods is recommended, as is media advocacy to promote healthy eating. References 1. Eur J Clin Nutr.

It has been hypothesized that obese individuals have lower basal metabolic rates. Consent for publication Not applicable. The types of food available in the house and the food preferences of family members can influence the foods that children eat.

Google Fas. Therefore, more studies, especially longitudinal studies based on large national representative samples with exact measures of quantity of FFC intake and its contribution to total daily energy intake, are needed to detect the association between FFC and health outcomes. Results Total population was , inhabitants, ranging from 14, to 84, depending on the region. J Pediatr Rio J. Thus, our results could not represent children and adolescents living in small cities or rural areas of China. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study. Conclusions The prevalence of fast food consumption, obesity and hypertension is high among children in major cities in China.

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In: Bhalwar RJ, editor. The association of fast food consumption with poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: is it the fast food or the remainder of the diet? Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient. Studies emerging from different parts fast food and child obesity articles India within last decade are also indicative of similar trend. In Western countries, although a positive association has been suggested between frequent FFC and weight gain in adults [ 242526 ], there is limited and mixed evidence for children [ 272829303132 ]. First, the definition of FFC was determined by eating in Western-style FF restaurants or eating a meal or snack in a food stall or in a non-westernized FF restaurant.

  • Characteristics of the studied populations and the presence of McDonald restaurants in the five Brazilian regions.

  • Four schools two primary schools and two middle schools were selected at random in each city. FF is high in unhealthy fats, salt, and sugar, which contributes to obesity and elevated BP [ 11 ] and has been positively associated with the obesity epidemic due to its increasing availability, energy density, and large portions [ 121314 ].

  • Accepted : 22 November

  • We examined status and risk factors for Western- and Chinese fast food consumption and their associations with health outcomes in Chinese children, and examined how maternal factors were associated with child health outcomes.

Other reasons for the mixed results being reported on the association between FFC and obesity may include that some studies only examined frequency of FFC and did not consider the quantity of FFC. Reduction of sodium intake is a prerequisite for preventing and curing high blood pressure in hypertensive patients - second part: guidelines. Fast food also results in the disappearance of nutritious meals and diets. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem.

In —, the prevalence of elevated BP and hypertension in U. J Family Med Prim Care. Fast food consumption and breakfast skipping: predictors of weight gain from adolescence obesihy adulthood in a nationally representative sample. Other reasons for the mixed results being reported on the association between FFC and obesity may include that some studies only examined frequency of FFC and did not consider the quantity of FFC. Curr Hypertens Rev. Article PubMed Google Scholar 8. This energy imbalance can cause weight gain, and consequently obesity.

Dynamic relations between fast-food restaurant and body weight status: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis of Chinese adults. Rosenheck R. Brazil is geopolitically divided into five macro-regions, each of which has its own economical and sociocultural pattern. However, Xi et al.

We also thank Dr. Conclusions The prevalence of FFC, obesity, and hypertension is high child obesity articles children in mega-cities in China. The obesity prevalence was much higher in boys, and the FFC and hypertension prevalence was higher in older children. Health and Economic Burden of Obesity in Brazil. The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased rapidly among Chinese adults and children over the past three decades [ 12345 ]. Chin J Evid Based Pediatr. Methods Study design and participants The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities is a longitudinal study aimed at examining the etiology of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in China, especially in its major cities, which have been experiencing rapid economic and social transitions over the past three decades.

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This makes it an easy alternative to making food at home using healthy ingredients. Differences in BP measurements and the study populations could have contributed to these differences. Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents. Sixteen cohort studies and 71 cross-sectional studies conducted in 14 countries were identified. Am J Matern Child Nurs. The prevalence has increased at an alarming rate.

Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent girls in Chennai in and This obewity that people are eating larger portions of junk food, leading to abnormal weight gain. China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. We thank all the study participants and school personnel who participated in the data collection and our collaborators from multiple institutes in China and the United States. Concomitantly, there is a progressive rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and other nutrition related chronic diseases NRCDs like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer.

A study examining children aged 9—14 from —, found that consumption of sugary beverages increased BMI by small amounts over the years. Fourth, study participants were 7—16 fast food and child obesity articles old students from four mega-cities across China, which are more developed than other small cities and rural areas of China. The Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities is a longitudinal study aimed at examining the etiology of childhood obesity and chronic diseases in China, especially in its major cities, which have been experiencing rapid economic and social transitions over the past three decades. Including school as a random effect in the model resulted in a smaller Bayesian information criterion, indicating improved model fit.

These results should be taken into consideration by education and prevention campaigns. Fast-food consumption and body mass index in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. Are child eating patterns being transformed globally? Rosenheck R.

Received : 15 May The prevalence of FFC, obesity, and hypertension is high among children in mega-cities in China. Maternal BMI was obtained from self-reported height fast food and child obesity articles weight. Thus, analysis carried out with other criteria such as the consumption of sodas, time spent watching television or playing video games or, conversely, the practice of sport, would certainly obtain fairly similar results. Junk food availability in schools has greatly increased the rates of occurrence of obesity. Fast-food consumption must be maintained as a main target in the battle against childhood obesity.

Previously mixed results based on cross-sectional data have been reported on the association between FFC and obesity among Chinese children. Our analysis focused exclusively on child obesity articles Arficles chain. Acknowledgements We thank all the study participants and school personnel who participated in the data collection and our collaborators from multiple institutes in China and the United States. Brownell said there are encouraging signs that policy-makers are taking action to protect children from the fast-food trend, including efforts to limit soft drink and snack food sales in schools, and to curb food advertising aimed at children. Metrics details. Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death. Health and Economic Burden of Obesity in Brazil.

This would make our estimate more conservative. Alarming trends in ideal cardiovascular health among children and adolescents in Beijing, China, to Int J Cardiol. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Article PubMed Google Scholar

  • Be the first to know. We examined status and risk factors for Western- and Chinese fast food consumption and their associations with health outcomes in Chinese children, and examined how maternal factors were associated with child health outcomes.

  • Acta Paediatr. Peer Review reports.

  • The U.

  • A third measure was performed if the difference between the first two measures was more than 10 mmHg, and any two measures with a difference less than 10 mmHg were recorded. The China Health and Nutrition Survey data reported that hypertension prevalence among children in was

  • The growing issue of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on the causes. Let us look at this Fast food consumption causes and effect connection between fast food and obesity.

  • BMC Public Health.

Thus, there is a linear relationship between body dissatisfaction and increasing BMI for girls; while for boys a U-shaped relationship suggests that boys with BMIs at the low and high extremes experience high levels of body dissatisfaction. As a concluding statement, fast food is the main cause of obesity. In addition to being implicated in numerous medical concerns, childhood obesity affects children's and adolescent's social and emotional health. However, Xi et al.

Convenience Fast food restaurants provide ease. Article PubMed Google Scholar. The data contain rich information such as child growth and health, family characteristics, home, community and school environment, dietary intake, physical activity, and social networks. Opportunities to be physically active and safe environments to be active in have decreased in the recent years. Reduction of sodium intake is a prerequisite for preventing and curing high blood pressure in hypertensive patients - second part: guidelines. Research has made important contributions to our understanding of the factors associated with obesity.

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