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High fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada: Study: Countries That Use More High Fructose Corn Syrup Have More Diabetes

Area under the curve for glucose challenge at 15 weeks. Childhood obesity has also become a global health issue and its incidence is increasing in both developed and developing countries.

Ethan Walker
Monday, March 11, 2019
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  • Drink water, seltzer, low-fat milk or orange juice instead.

  • Fructose also has critical effects on lipid metabolism. The incidence of MetS is also rising.

  • By adding enzymes, the syrup is converted into fructose.

  • Am Econ Rev ; 94 —

The link between fructose and obesity

As for the Corn Refiners Association's claim that table sugar is natural, the Center for Science says you can't find high-fructose corn syrup in nature — somebody has to make it. No endorsement by the Wellcome Trust is intended or should be inferred. Second, data limitations preclude the possibility of fully testing how US exports responded to tariffs and the impact of changing HFCS consumption on health outcomes.

  • The Atlantic Crossword.

  • In this study, which employed the Framingham Offspring Study cohort, midlife measures of obesity and of hypertension were each significantly related to poorer cognitive performance on executive function and visual motor skills. And no one was joining the dots between [High Fructose Corn Syrup] and fat.

  • US investments in Canadian corn syrup industry. Our sample covers the years —

  • National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. We screen for comments that seek to spread information that is false or misleading.

Annu Rev Public Health ; 36 — Canadian special forces operate outside walls of Kabul airport to rescue Afghan allies. In Novemberresearch led by Dr. Bowles P. Am J Clin Nutr ; 79 —

A canaca of the debate in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition rejects HFCS as a causative factor of obesity, arguing that the processed stuff, though scary-sounding"is not meaningfully different in composition corn syrup and metabolism from other fructose-glucose sweeteners like sucrose, honey, and fruit juice concentrates. In this prospective study, BMI and blood pressure status were related to cognitive performance on tests administered years later. Changes in cognitive function were accompanied by reduced expression of synaptophysin and synapsin I, synaptic plasticity-associated proteins found in the brain. Hudetz JA, Gandhi SD, Iqbal Z, et al: Elevated postoperative inflammatory biomarkers are associated with short- and medium-term cognitive dysfunction after coronary artery surgery. Roitman MF. Half the glucose molecules are then chemically changed into fructose another type of sugar — but sweeter. I think for a lot of people, food is like a drug.

What is high fructose corn syrup?

Moreover, a higher BMI at obesiry was associated with lower cognitive scores at follow-up, 5 years later. Thus, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages appears to be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. Dietary DHA appears to be a promising target to protect against the detrimental effects of high fructose intake on cognitive performance. That said, in comparing access to HFCS vs.

Learn More. Half the glucose molecules are then chemically changed into fructose another type of sugar — but sweeter. This should be taken into account by countries negotiating future trade agreements. We will not publish: Comments written that are poorly spelled; or are written in caps; or which use strange formatting to get noticed. These findings were robust to additional sensitivity analyses, and are consistent with previous studies which find that countries enacting trade deals with the US experience changes in their food environments.

J Nutr ; S—3S. J Am Diet Assoc ; — Foods that contain sugar in the first few ingredients, including HFCS, should be limited. Wise C. Offer new information. Look for breakfast cereals that have no more than eight grams of sugar per serving.

  • Health Videos false. The rise in caloric sweeteners persisted for each year that tariffs were reduced, stopping after the final reduction in

  • Less obesity will mean longer, healthier lives, and help contribute to lowering the social, political, and economic costs of unhealthy lifestyles. Thus, an increase in BMI over the adult life course was associated with lower cognitive performance in late midlife, supporting earlier reports [ 58 ].

  • In Novemberresearch led by Dr. USC schools bring diverse voices and perspectives into the classroom University leaders describe their ongoing efforts to include more diversity in academia, re-imagining curriculums to bring in viewpoints that have historically been overlooked.

Reagan L: Insulin signaling effects on mood and memory. Burkhalter TM, Hillman CH: A narrative review of physical activity, nutrition, and obesity to cognition and scholastic performance across the human lifespan. Obese children acnada kindergarten up until the end of third grade, exhibit lower academic test scores [ 67 ]. Ross et al. Report an error. To date, most research on globalization and nutrition has examined the effects of foreign direct investment: how consumption patterns change when multinational food companies, such as Coca-Cola or the global snack food maker Mondelez, begin producing and advertising in new markets. T2D is associated with reduced cognitive function [ 19 ] and a increased 1.

Thus, HFCS, like sucrose, was not perceived to pose a significant health risk, with the single exception of promoting dental caries [ 9798 ]. A cognitive test battery consisting of 4 standard tasks was administered, which consisted of the Alice Heima test of reasoning, in addition to a recall test to test short-term memory, and two measures of verbal fluency. Su H: Mechanisms of n-3 fatty acid-mediated development and maintenance of learning memory performance. By Alexandra Le Tellier.

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Why is the developed world obese? Bowles P. Rival industries sweet-talk the public. USC-led study traces the blueprints for how human kidneys form their filtering units With these blueprints, USC Stem Cell scientists lay the foundation for building a synthetic mini kidney. The results did not qualitatively affect our results.

Farewell to foie gras. Thus, in this study, greater BMI in old age was not predictive of cognitive decline at follow-up. As a result, researchers found, consumption stayed flat on those protected sweeteners, but spiked for high-fructose corn syrup. Article What's a Dietitian? Curr Opin Behav Sci. Additional information Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Nat Neurosci.

Print Email Share. OECD health policy overview: health policies in Canada. Trade between Canada and the United States has been transformed over the past 3 decades. Footnotes See related article at www.

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Annu Rev Public Health ; 29 — It also claims these high levels are independent of total sugar intake and obesity levels. Dietitians look beyond fads to deliver reliable, life-changing advice.

  • Our models adjust for urbanization and for national income gross domestic product [GDP] per capita corrected for differences in prices and in purchasing power using data from the World Bank World Development Indicators edition. Governments report food supply data to the United Nations based on harmonized classification and measurement guidelines.

  • Neurobiol Learn Mem. However, cognitive decline on the global score was only faster among individuals with both obesity and metabolic abnormality.

  • ScienceDaily shares links with sites in the TrendMD network and earns revenue from third-party advertisers, where indicated. Nature ; —9.

  • It was shown that the high glycemic meal led to poorer performance in memory tests when administered hours after eating. When alterations in dopamine function are observed under high fat diet HFDit is difficult to disentangle the potential contribution of increased weight, altered macromolecule composition of the diet per seand effects secondary of metabolic disorder, including altered insulin and leptin signaling and resistance.

  • For example, in a prospective cohort study, Cournot et al.

  • As a result, fructose was accepted as a beneficial dietary component and fructose was recommended as a sweetener to patients with diabetes.

Agrawal R, Gomez-Pinilla F: Metabolic syndrome in the brain: deficiency in omega-3 fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions higgh insulin receptor signalling and cognition. To assess total DA signaling we calculated the area under the curve for DA traces. Contact us Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us General enquiries: info biomedcentral. J Sch Health. Int J Obes. Briefly, a bipolar stimulating electrode was lowered into the substantia nigra pars compacta SNC, AP,

Living Well. ScienceDaily, 5 July Also, there may have been other factors in Canada that coincided with changes in NAFTA that could account for these findings. Many contain only 5 to 10 per cent juice. CBC News Loaded. Figure

High-fructose corn syrup is found in almost all foods containing added sugar

Indicators of the establishment of Canadian branches or acquisition of Canadian companies by major US corn syrup producers. Trade liberalisation and the nutrition transition: mapping the pathways for public health nutritionists. But it is clear that — overall — North Americans are consuming a lot more sweeteners than they should be. Annual supply figures are the sum of imports and domestic production, less exports, estimated wastage and stocks from the previous period.

Body weight was measured weekly. J Nutr. At the same time, obesity rates increased from Brain Behav Immun. Rats fed diets supplemented with HFCS were more coorn resistant and cognitively impaired on spatial learning and ability tasks than non-supplemented rats [ ]. Postprandial memory performance after consuming a meal with high or a low glycemic index was examined in adults with well-controlled T2D [ ]. Corn refiners vehemently deny that assertion — as well as any suggestion that HFCS may have contributed to Canadian obesity rates.

Deficits of mesolimbic server neurotransmission in ratds dietary obesity. In addition to MetS and hypertension, diabetes has been linked to poorer cognitive performance; however, in this study, diabetes did not modify the effects of obesity on cognition [ 54 ], suggesting that the underlying mechanisms may be different. IL-1 has been implicated in memory consolidation, whereas IL-6 may mediate hippocampal dysfunction and thus affect memory and cognition [ ]. HFCS consumption with chow diet did not induce weight gain compared to water, chow-only controls but did induce glucose dysregulation and reduced evoked dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum. In an internet based study involving children aged years, children who ate breakfast performed better on tests of attention and memory than children who skipped breakfast, indicating that breakfast exerts a beneficial effect in maintaining cognitive function during the morning [ 49 ]. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.

Long-Term Effects of High Fructose Diets

Dietitians look beyond fads to deliver reliable, life-changing advice. This article has been peer reviewed. Footnotes See related article at www. Instead, choose similar foods that are low in added sugar such as vegetables, fruit, water, plain oats, whole grain breads and plain yogurt. Washington: World Bank;

Professor from the University of Southern California Michael Goran says the fructose converts into fat and people should stay away from consuming it. Doctors on frontline of debate. They also looked at the total availability of sugar and calories, along with estimated rates of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance, and each country's GDP. In Marchthere was evidence of harmful health effects associated with high-fructose corn syrup, this time for a type of liver disease. Toward free trade in sugar.

The 20 percent increase in type 2 diabetes is caanada of total sugar consumption and high fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada. Limit candy, cookies, cakes, pies, doughnuts, granola bars, pastries, and other sweet baked goods. Am J Pol Sci ; 59 — The jury may be out on whether high-fructose corn syrup is fuelling an epidemic of obesity and diabetes. However, our bodies use HFCS and other sugars the same way. According to the study, which was published in Global Public Health, countries that use HFCS in their food supply had a 20 percent higher prevalence of diabetes than countries that did not use it. Digestive health: HFCS can cause bloating and gas.

What is high fructose corn syrup?

Intake of dietary fructose has also increased. We demonstrate that HFCS can impair dopamine function in the absence of weight high fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada or increased fat consumption. Fructise is directly attributable to excessive caloric intake [ 25 ] and there is now strong evidence that intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, contributes to the rising obesity and diabetes rates [ 926 ]. Obesity and cognition There is no doubt that nutrition is critical for cognition and academic performance; however, food intake in excess of energy needs is linked to the development of obesity [ 52 ] and obesity has been associated with poorer cognitive function [ 5354 ]. All parameters of MetS in the brain related to the fructose treatment were also ameliorated by omega-3 FA intake.

Physiol Behav. It is now known that many of the diagnostic characteristics that define the MetS are individually related to cognitive impairment. The hippocampus is a brain region critical for learning and memory. Peer Review reports. Dopamine was electrochemically identified through its voltammogram signature Fig 2C and recoding sites were histologically verified Fig 3. Int J Obes Skip to Main Content.

ALSO READ: Lepirudin Dosing In Morbidly Obese Patient

High fructose corn syrup: just another sugar? It also claims these high levels are independent of total sugar intake and obesity levels. New research from UCLA associated high-fructose corn syrup with pancreatic cancer, while still another study found a link between beverages containing the sweet syrup and gout in women. High-fructose corn syrup HFCS is a type of low cost sweetener derived from corn and used particularly in processed and store-bought foods. Annu Rev Public Health ; 36 — According to growing evidence, the body metabolizes fructose differently from glucose.

However, our bodies use Nokia n8 format mass memory server uigh other sugars the same way. New research from UCLA associated high-fructose corn syrup with pancreatic cancer, while still another study found a link between beverages containing the sweet syrup and gout in women. Also, there may have been other factors in Canada that coincided with changes in NAFTA that could account for these findings. Signs your child may need additional mental health supports. Health Research by Michael Goran indicates that countries with large amounts of high fructose corn syrup in their food supplies also have a higher prevalance of Type 2 diabetes than countries that do not. Supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS, cane and beet sugars, total sugars, cereals, fruits, meats, vegetables, vegetable oils, animal fats and all food.

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Learn More. This rise in HFCS consumption was correlated with a large rise in obesity rates, from 5. We examined whether our choice of fructos countries could explain our results, by iteratively excluding each country from the sample, and by estimating our results including only OECD countries that were not European Economic Area members. Foods that contain sugar in the first few ingredients, including HFCS, should be limited. King G, Zeng L.

Nixon appointed Earl Butz, an academic from the farming heartland of Indiana, to broker a compromise. Cognition was evaluated in late midlife by using the item MMSE, and tests of memory verbal memory and executive function Alice Heim 4-I, high fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada of verbal and phonemic fluency. Corn became the engine for the massive surge in the quantities of cheaper food being supplied to American supermarkets: everything from cereals, to biscuits and flour found new uses for corn. Glucose challenge Prior to glucose challenge at week 15mice were food and water deprived for 6 hours. Dietary fructose accelerates the development of diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats: amelioration by the antioxidant, -lipoic acid. HFCS-chow mice consumed an average of S and Europe [ 43 — 45 ], affects cognitive functioning [ 4647 ].

ALSO READ: The Bmi Says I M Obese When Will I Feel My Baby Move

Since verbal ability remains stable over the adult life span until very old age [ 86 high fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada, this can be seen as evidence that obesity is associated with cognitive decline. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Kanoski SE, Davidson TL: Western diet consumption and cognitive impairment: links to hippocamal dysfunction and obesity. Prenatal under nutrition also negatively influences cognitive function in later life [ 36 ]. Correspondence to Shaheen E Lakhan. J Neurosci Sci. In an internet based study involving children aged years, children who ate breakfast performed better on tests of attention and memory than children who skipped breakfast, indicating that breakfast exerts a beneficial effect in maintaining cognitive function during the morning [ 49 ].

During stimulation protocols, for each 15s recording, background was digitally subtracted by averaging the background current obtained from ten scans selected from prior to stimulation onset [ 38 ]. High fructose intake did not influence navigational ability. Jurdak N, Kanarek RB: Sucrose-induced obesity impairs novel object recognition learning in young rats. In this paper we review the association of obesity with cognitive performance. Fructose also has critical effects on lipid metabolism. Reprints and Permissions. Fructose and cognition Results from animal studies suggest that fructose intake may be associated with cognitive decline.

Background

Results from animal studies suggest that fructose intake may be associated with cognitive decline. By reducing or eliminating fructose from diets, the rates of abdominal obesity can be greatly reduced. Obesity is directly attributable to excessive caloric intake [ 25 ] and there is now strong evidence that intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, contributes to the rising obesity and diabetes rates [ 926 ]. The hippocampus is a brain region critical for learning and memory.

Times Store. Area under the curve for glucose challenge at 15 weeks. Impaired cognitive function by high fructose cansda also reported by Agrawal and Gomez-Pinilla [ 32 ]. Evidence from clinical studies indicates that dietary supplementation with omega-3 FAs improves cognitive performance in healthy children and adults [ ] and is somewhat effective in preventing or ameliorating cognitive decline in the aged [ ]; however, these findings are not consistent across studies []. Choose products with the least amount of added sugar.

Synthetic control results Table 2 shows that the characteristics of Canada and fructos synthetic control before NAFTA were very similar in terms of predictors of caloric sweetener supply. High-fructose corn syrup HFCS is a type of low cost sweetener derived from corn and used particularly in processed and store-bought foods. Glucose syrup is then added to the mix to make high-fructose corn syrup. Don't Miss false.

  • More stories about: DiabetesResearch. This limits the generalizability of our findings, but enables us to parse the specific policies and mechanisms linking FTAs to changing diets.

  • Dev Psychol. J Nutr.

  • King G, Zeng L.

  • Proc Nutr Soc.

Lipton E. Tariffs were removed from food and drink syrups made from HFCS between andbut remained on those containing cane and beet sugars. US investments in Canadian corn high fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada industry. USC schools bring diverse voices and perspectives into the classroom University leaders describe their ongoing efforts to include more diversity in academia, re-imagining curriculums to bring in viewpoints that have historically been overlooked. Please review our privacy policy. Soft drinks, sweetened fruit juices, sugary cereals, frozen dinners, flavoured yogurts, white bread, boxed desserts and condiments can all be high in sugar. Am J Clin Nutr ; 86 —

Mice were anesthetized with urethane 1. CNS Spectr. Berthoud H-R. Diabet Med. Abundant consumption of fructose is also an important contributor to the MetS [ 31 ]. Both authors participated in the preparation of the manuscript, and read and approved the final manuscript.

Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. The compositional similarity of HFCS to sucrose suggested that it was safe and would be metabolized in a similar manner. Animal studies have shown that consumption of a DHA enriched diet restores brain DHA levels [ ], enhances learning and memory tasks in aged animals [], and significantly reduces beta amyloid, plaques, and tau in transgenic AD models []. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup. Times Store.

New York Times Instead, choose similar foods that are low in added sugar such as vegetables, fruit, water, plain oats, whole grain breads and plain yogurt. Canadians consume approximately nine kilograms per person, per year. More Health Stories. Canadian researcher John Sievenpiper at St.

Recent studies indicate that both obesity and T2D are associated with cognitive decline. Moreover, when tested 10 days after the initial training trials, sucrose fed rats displayed deficits in long-term spatial memory [ 79 ]. Barlow, the Oxford researcher, would like to see more public health groups involved in negotiating trade deals. References 1.

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Figure 2 and Appendix 10 available at www. Maybe not. Richard Johnson of Colorado University was published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, suggesting high fructose corn syrup may play a role in hypertension and kidney disease. Critics suggest there's a link between the increased use of high-fructose corn syrup and a growing North American diabetes and obesity epidemic. See related article at www.

The health impact of trade and investment agreements: a quantitative systematic review and network co-citation analysis. North American Free Trade Agreement. Conclusion These limitations notwithstanding, we find evidence that lower tariffs following NAFTA were associated with increased supply and likely consumption of caloric sweeteners in Canada including potentially hazardous HFCS. This limits the generalizability of our findings, but enables us to parse the specific policies and mechanisms linking FTAs to changing diets.

Conclusion These limitations notwithstanding, we find evidence that lower tariffs following NAFTA were associated with increased supply and likely consumption of caloric sweeteners in Canada including potentially hazardous HFCS. The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. Estimating causal effects: considering three alternatives to difference-in-differences estimation. See related article at www.

Don't Miss false. First, our study analyzes changes in 1 specific product category in a developed country. Science High fructose corn syrup: just another sugar?

  • According to the statement, countries with higher use of HFCS had an average prevalence of Type 2 diabetes of eight per cent, compared to 6.

  • Interestingly, this increase coincides with the obesity epidemic. Want to unlock the potential of food?

  • Hoboken NJ : Wiley-Blackwell;

  • We attempted to address this possibility using additional placebo studies and sensitivity analyses that did not qualitatively affect our results.

In fact, there is evidence that the relations between obesity and cognition are modified by the presence high fructose corn syrup and obesity rates in canada cardiovascular higy factors. Read on to learn about the safety of high-fructose corn syrup and its role in your health. About this article Cite this article Lakhan, S. Most of the HFCS we eat or drink comes from soft drinks and sweetened fruit drinks. All parameters of MetS in the brain related to the fructose treatment were also ameliorated by omega-3 FA intake. Cognitive function was examined using the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination, and obesity using BMI and waist circumference, as measured at the level midway between the lower rib margin and the iliac crest [ 56 ]. Curr Opin Behav Sci.

Canqda The contribution of high fructose corn syrup HFCS to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. Nutr Neurosci. Following recording, recording site was marked with trypan blue 80 nL and histology performed to determine placement of working electrodes. Islet adaptive changes to fructose-induced insulin resistance: -cell mass, glucokinase, glucose metabolism, and insulin secretion. Gustafson D: Adiposity indices and dementia.

World Development Indicators Eat fruit instead. Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar.

  • The Economist Mysterious condition may be linked to stress of vaccination.

  • Fructose, an isomer of glucose, is a natural sugar found in many fruits.

  • As for the Corn Refiners Association's claim that table sugar is natural, the Center for Science says you can't find high-fructose corn syrup in nature — somebody has to make it.

  • Glucose syrup is then added to the mix to make high-fructose corn syrup.

  • Billmeier A, Nannicini T. Rev Econ Stat ; 95 —

The study sponsors had no role in the design of the study; the collection, analysis or interpretation of data; the writing of the report; or the decision to submit the article for publication. Public health: the toxic truth about sugar. Appendix 4 available at www. Investment Review Division, Government of Canada; All authors gave final approval of the version to be published. North American Free Trade Agreement. After it's milled, the resulting starch is processed into a syrup.

Moreover, in animal studies, HFCS consumption seems to produce some of these changes associated with the MetS even without increasing the body weight [ ]. Curr Opin Behav Sci. One global studywhich analyzed food, tobacco and alcohol habits in 80 countries after they joined U. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Times Events.

High-fructose corn syrup is found in almost all foods containing added sugar

Nevertheless, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with excess calorie intake, and an increased risk of T2D through an increase in body weight [ ]. Rodents fed a low omega-3 FA diet showed significant cognitive deficits [ ] that were reduced by DHA supplementation [ ]. Nat Statistics Rep. Postprandial memory performance after consuming a meal with high or a low glycemic index was examined in adults with well-controlled T2D [ ]. More News.

Soft drinks, sweetened fruit juices, sugary cereals, frozen dinners, flavoured yogurts, white bread, boxed desserts and condiments can all be high in sugar. Countries with higher use of HFCS had an average prevalence of Type 2 diabetes of 8 percent compared to 6. Billmeier A, Nannicini T. J Nutr ; S—3S.

Public health: the toxic truth about sugar. Reactive carbonyls are not present in table sugar, whose fructose and glucose components are "bound" abd chemically stable. Trade and investment agreements: implications for health protection. The opinions, results and conclusions reported in this paper are those of the authors and are independent from the funding sources. Article Spaghetti Squash and Salmon Bowl. The most common form of the syrup contains 45 per cent glucose and 55 per cent fructose.

Dev Psychobiol. Cognitive impairment obesihy also linked to MetS [ 22 ], and individuals with MetS in midlife are at increased risk of later life cognitive decline and dementia [ 23 ]. Dysregulation of dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum inhibits feeding. This may occur due to increased diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C PKC which causes decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, increased glucose production, and impaired glucose tolerance [ 11 ]. J Sch Health.

Stimulate debate. The study sponsors had no role in the design of the study; the collection, analysis or interpretation of ssyrup the writing of the report; or the decision to submit the article for publication. But it is clear that — overall — North Americans are consuming a lot more sweeteners than they should be. Investment Review Division, Government of Canada; What not to do: We will not publish comments that are profane, libelous, racist, or engage in personal attacks. October 29 Available: www. John Sievenpiper from St.

Earlyt Hum Dev. Research conducted by the University of Bristol UK supports the claim that high-fructose corn syrup is the main cause leading to obesity. Lack of evidence for high fructose corn syrup as the cause of the obesity epidemic. After adjustment for co-variables, including age, sex, educational level, blood pressure, diabetes, and other psychosocial factors, a higher BMI at baseline was associated with lower cognitive scores.

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