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Intra abdominal fat accumulated obesity epidemic: Abdominal obesity

Obes Res ; 10 : —

Ethan Walker
Sunday, May 27, 2018
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  • Central obesity can be a feature of lipodystrophiesa group of diseases that is either inheritedor due to secondary causes often protease inhibitorsa group of medications against AIDS. Download references.

  • Prev Med ; 29 : —

  • In other words, excessive waist circumference appears to be more of a risk factor for metabolic syndrome than BMI.

  • Malik, V. National Institutes of Health.

Introduction

Google Scholar Zheng, W. Renehan, A. Obesity Silver Spring 17— Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, — Google Scholar Marti, A.

Obesity Research. Prado, C. Overweight in childhood, adolescence and adulthood and cardiovascular risk in later life: pooled analysis of three British birth cohorts. Diaz-Gutierrez, J. Central obesity is a symptom of Cushing's syndrome [37] and is also common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS.

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Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method. Acknowledgements None. Didangelos et al. Provenance Invited contribution. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and CVD is expected to rise dramatically in parallel to the global obesity epidemic.

Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. As population age, and inactivity and overweight become the norm, world-wide, it is likely that luna video syndrome will become more frequent in older people. Science ; : — Some experts have been critical of the concept of the metabolic syndrome, referring to the dominant role waist circumference over the remaining components of the syndrome such that, in its entirety, the metabolic syndrome appears to add little improvement on waist circumference alone on risk assessment or therapeutic value. Evaluation of adipocytokines and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors in young male cancer survivors: an age-matched control study. The predisposition to deposit excess body fat in intra-abdominal and ectopic sites appears mainly to be determined very early in life.

Acckmulated review and meta-analysis of comprehensive behavioral family lifestyle interventions addressing pediatric obesity. Google Scholar 58 Mozaffarian, D. Bibcode : NatSR Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. Download citation. This paper suggests that monitoring childhood growth will help to identify children at risk of developing an adverse cardiometabolic profile in adulthood. November 2,

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Many hypertensive individuals have glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia. References 1. Healthy people national health promotion and disease prevention objectives.

Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Google Scholar Schauer, P. Google Scholar Enright, G. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parikh et al. Malik, V. Lifespan weighed down by diet.

Barker DJP. In spite of the research progress in the field, several questions on the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance are still unanswered. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease. Obesity surgeries have jumped dramatically since

Bouchard C. Banting lecture. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. External link. What is the risk of coronary heart disease in South Asians? Diabetes Obes Metab ; 4 : —

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Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. Central obesity is positively associated with coronary heart disease risk in women and men. Care 11— Google Scholar Pi-Sunyer, X. Google Scholar 29 Koletzko, B.

  • Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI. Figure 2: Evolution of obesity prevalence.

  • The predisposition to deposit excess body fat in intra-abdominal and ectopic sites appears mainly to be determined very early in life.

  • Google Scholar Gonzalez-Muniesa, P. This paper reports that weight loss should improve quality of life in people who are overweight and obese.

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Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Google Scholar Enright, G. Prado, C. Hwang, Y. Google Scholar 9 Seabolt, L. Google Scholar 39 Weber, M.

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Ouchi, N. Figure 4: Key factors involved in the regulation of energy balance. Google Scholar Cameron, A. Google Scholar Inge, T. Natl Acad.

Obes Surg ; 14 : — The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is showing a rapid progression worldwide, a phenomenon largely resulting from the epidemic proportions reached by obesity in various populations of the world. Mayo Clin Proc ; 83 : — Patients with insulinoma show insulin resistance in the absence of arterial hypertension.

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Mayo Clin Proc ; 83 : — Some of the links between components of the metabolic syndrome relate to insulin resistance, although about a third of patients with the metabolic syndrome have normal insulin sensitivity. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

There is evidence from various studies to support this notion. Learn More. Obesity and a wider epidemiv on vascular disease. Multiomics approach, combined with nutrition as well as imaging techniques might contribute to unravel the role of body composition on insulin resistance. Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. The NCEP suggested categorizing these individuals according to absolute year risk, with very high-risk category comprising those with existing CVD or with type 2 diabetes diabetes is classified as a CHD risk equivalent irrespective of the presence or absence of other risk factors.

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Mozumdar A, Liguori G. A review of UK research. All bariatric surgical procedures have potential complications, therefore should be performed in a specialist centre. Dyslipidaemia High triglyceride and low HDL cholesterol levels are core components of the metabolic accumulated obesity. Some experts have been critical of the concept of the metabolic syndrome, referring to the dominant role waist circumference over the remaining components of the syndrome such that, in its entirety, the metabolic syndrome appears to add little improvement on waist circumference alone on risk assessment or therapeutic value. The IDF proposed a simpler set of criteria requiring a large waist circumference but set at a slightly lower level than that of NCEP, plus any two of the other components.

World Health Organization. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative, but it has never been shown that bariatric surgery works well in people who have failed with a formal drug and diet approach. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has made clear guidelines for individuals who should be considered for bariatric surgery, 84 to reduce intake or absorption of calories. Johnson BA.

The metabolic syndrome is strongly linked to a lifestyle characterized by an easy access to unlimited supply of high caloric, low nutrient-dense, foods and physical inactivity. Case et al. Astrup et al. Placenta ; 31 : —

Google Scholar 51 Vandevijvere, S. Many prescription drugssuch as dexamethasone and other steroidscan also have side effects resulting in central obesity, [69] especially in the presence of elevated insulin levels. Rosito, G. Kelly, T.

As population age, and inactivity and overweight become the norm, world-wide, it is likely fat accumulated metabolic syndrome will become more frequent in older people. Insulin resistance is a condition of gluco-metabolic sufferance that may hesitate in the further development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Science ; : — Astrup et al. Biguanides, used to treat type 2 diabetes, have also been shown to improve lipid profile and regulate menstrual cycles and increase fertility in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Diabetes Care ; 28 : —

Ghroubi et al. This body type is also known as "apple shaped", as opposed to obesigy shaped" in which fat is deposited on the hips and buttocks. These results are consistent among American, [55] Canadian, [56] Latin American, [57] British, [58] Australian, [59] French, [60] and Spanish populations. Google Scholar 42 Prentice, P. Google Scholar 49 Ludwig, D.

Email address Sign up. Download references. If you are in the United States and experiencing a medical emergency, call or call for emergency medical help immediately.

Cullins in human intra-uterine growth restriction: expressional and epigenetic alterations. Brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein content in human infants, children and adults. In order to prevent or reduce long-term risk for CVD, preventative interventions should be initiated for individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome, with a focus on weight management to reduce excessive central fat accumulation. Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 10 : —

On the evolutionary origins of obesity: a new hypothesis. International Journal of Obesity. Google Scholar Johnston, B. Malik, V. A decline in inflammation is associated with less depressive symptoms after a dietary intervention in metabolic syndrome patients: a longitudinal study.

PLoS One ; 5 : e—e The severity epudemic individuals with metabolic syndrome but without CVD or type 2 diabetes are based on the Framingham year risk for CHD calculated from their other risk factors. J Intern Med ; : — Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American and white adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

Ludwig, D. European Heart Journal. Google Scholar Rubino, F. Google Scholar 52 Sayon-Orea, C. Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor correlates of high pericardial and intrathoracic fat depots in the Framingham Heart Study. Google Scholar Ortega, F.

Google Scholar 28 Ahluwalia, N. American Journal of Epidemiology. However, there is little scientific evidence that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity, despite its being known colloquially as "beer belly", "beer gut", or "beer pot". Metabolic surgery in the treatment algorithm for type 2 diabetes: a joint statement by International Diabetes Organizations.

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Classification of body fat and fat distribution Guidelines for healthy weight have traditionally been based on body mass index BMI cut-offs recommended by the World Health Organization WHO for use in epidemiology. Eur Heart J ; 28 : — Curr Opin Lipidol ; 15 : — Medical management Management goal of the metabolic syndrome focuses on lifestyle changes such daily intake of five portions of fruit and vegetables 64 and reduction in regular alcohol consumption to reverse modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic disease and to prevent health complications including liver disease and cancer 65 Table 4.

Public Health Nutrition. Google Scholar 94 Sacks, H. Lobstein, T. Rolland-Cachera, M. Korenfeld, Y.

Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular intra abdominal fat accumulated obesity epidemic, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Diabet Med ; 23 : — Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. However, physicians have been puzzled by the heterogeneity of obesity as not every obese patient is characterized by chronic complications. DOI: Clinical guideline

Download as PDF Printable version. Google Scholar Gonzalez-Muniesa, P. Google Scholar Marso, S.

Derivation and validation of simple equations to predict total muscle mass from simple anthropometric and demographic data. Ann Surg ; : — Although sibutramine treatment is contra-indicated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk factors, the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome Trial SCOUT has shown that sibutramine treatment with weight management is well tolerated by the majority of high-risk individuals with CVD. Reduction in incidence of diabetes, hypertension and lipid disturbances after intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery: the SOS Intervention Study. The development of insulin resistance is mostly associated with the accumulation of excessive fat in the body. Some of the links between components of the metabolic syndrome relate to insulin resistance, although about a third of patients with the metabolic syndrome have normal insulin sensitivity. Lifelong exposure to glucocorticoids, such as in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia to control hyperandrogenism is linked to excess risk of obesity and metabolic disorders.

Brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein content in human infants, children and adults. Leptin therapy for partial lipodystrophy accumulted to a PPAR-gamma mutation. Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American and white adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Diabetes Obes Metab ; 4 : — Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults COR-I : a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Effects of weight loss on risk factors of metabolic syndrome using by various regimens of low calorie diet, exercise, orlistat, liraglutide and bariatric surgery, reported in selected representative studies. Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 10 : 51—

Diabetes Care 28— Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. Google Scholar World Health Organization. A randomized, controlled trial of 3. Google Scholar Monajemi, H.

  • Dick, K.

  • Ann Surg ; : — Corresponding author.

  • Google Scholar Inge, T. Google Scholar Navarro, J.

  • Clin Obes ; 1 : 31— Using the thrifty and programming hypotheses, Barker suggested that poor nutrition in utero and early life has an adverse effect on the structure and function of vital organs.

  • Ikramuddin, S. Chen, L.

Conditions associated with increased metabolic syndrome and CVD A number of conditions obesity epidemic been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity, metabolic disorders and CVD that may give clues to underlying pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Br J Nutr ; 65 : — This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Insulin resistance is a condition of gluco-metabolic sufferance that may hesitate in the further development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

J Clin Invest ; : — Hofker M, Wijmenga C. Intra abdominal fat accumulated obesity epidemic ; 49 : — One of the recently approved anti-obesity drugs by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency is the combination of bupropion and naltrexone approved name Contrave in the United States and Mysimba in Europe. Insulin resistance is closely related to impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes and risk of CHD. Clin Endocrinol Oxf ; 68 : —

PHS Treatment epidemic anti-obesity drugs such intta tetrahydrolipstatin e. In general, weight loss through diet and lifestyle plus anti-obesity drugs results in improvement in all the cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Derangements of these components have been shown to associate with elevated levels of plasma small dense low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, the most atherogenic subfraction of LDL, in individuals who are susceptible to gain weight. The expanded mass of metabolically favourable subcutaneous adipose tissue appears to serve as a sump for glucose and lipid disposal.

  • The hunger genes: pathways to obesity. Obesity Epidemiology Oxford Univ.

  • PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease.

  • Google Scholar Cameron, A.

  • Acta Paediatr. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has made clear guidelines for individuals who should be considered for bariatric surgery, 84 to reduce epiemic or absorption of calories. Am J Hypertens ; 2 : — Prevention It is likely that risk factors exist long before overt symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and CVD are expressed. Development of metabolic syndrome depends on two elements: firstly adult weight gain, with body fat accumulation and secondly a predisposition to locate fat in intra-abdominal sites, including ectopic fat in liver, pancreas and heart. These hypotheses help explain, in part, the high incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CHD observed in immigrants from the Indian sub-continent to Western countries.

Google Scholar 82 Locke, A. Chan, J. The hunger genes: pathways to obesity. As mentioned above, abdominal fat is linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Food Sci. Google Scholar 52 Sayon-Orea, C.

As mentioned intra abdominal fat accumulated obesity epidemic, abdominal fat is linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Google Scholar Savva, S. XENical in the prevention of intar in obese subjects XENDOS study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. However, there is little scientific evidence that beer drinkers are more prone to central obesity, despite its being known colloquially as "beer belly", "beer gut", or "beer pot".

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You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. Donnelly, J. Google Scholar 63 Cornier, M. This paper suggests that personalized dietary treatments could benefit from the integration of nutrigenetic, epigenetic and metagenomic data.

Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibition augments postprandial lipid mobilization and oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolic complications arise when intra abdominal fat accumulated obesity epidemic fat evolves into a fat storage. Surg Endoscy ; 26 : — Abstract Insulin resistance is a condition of gluco-metabolic sufferance that may hesitate in the further development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A review of UK research. Clin Sci Lond ; 71 : — Various surgical procedures are now available including gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass.

Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for obeslty patients with metabolic syndrome. Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Johnson BA. Update on neuropharmacological treatments for alcoholism: scientific basis and clinical findings. World Health Organization.

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Google Scholar Eckel, R. Press, Bes-Rastrollo, M. These data indicate a causal cancer-preventive effect of intentional weight loss. Yumuk, V.

J Public Health Med ; 22 : — Comparison of a low-energy diet and a very low-energy diet in sedentary obese individuals: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2 : — Obes Res ; 7 : — Insulin resistance is a condition of gluco-metabolic sufferance that may hesitate in the further development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Prevention It is likely that risk factors exist long before overt symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and CVD are expressed. Annu Rev Public Health ; 22 : —

Impact of oxygen availability on body weight management. Crosby, R. Stenholm, S. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Visceral abdominal fat accumulation predicts the conversion of metabolically healthy obese subjects to an unhealthy phenotype. This paper shows that the role of macronutrient distribution has to be considered for individualized dietary approaches. Impact of intermittent hypoxia and exercise on blood pressure and metabolic features from obese subjects suffering sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Google Scholar 88 Dick, K. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abdominal obesity.

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Predicting body composition by densitometry epidrmic simple anthropometric measurements. Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia in patients with hypertension. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Insulin resistance is closely related to impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes and risk of CHD. Dissecting obesogenic environments. Diabet Med ; 23 : —

Metabolic surgery in the treatment algorithm for type 2 diabetes: a joint statement by Abvominal Diabetes Organizations. Dick, K. Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Rosen, E. October Hwang, Y. Numerous large studies have demonstrated that eating ultraprocessed food [54] has a positive dose-dependent relationship with both abdominal obesity and general obesity in both men and women.

Hanley, B. Google Scholar Naik, R. Fruit and vegetable consumption and changes in anthropometric variables in adult populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Janicke, D. Management of obesity.

  • Teixeira, T. Thiazolidinediones may cause slight weight gain but decrease "pathologic" abdominal fat visceral fatand therefore may be prescribed for diabetics with central obesity.

  • Since weight management has multiple clinical and personal benefits, with no appreciable hazards, there is an argument for offering evidence-based weight management to all patients with large waists, irrespective of the other components. By assessing the metabolic syndrome in conjunction with the Framingham risk score, the severity of CHD could be estimated for individuals with additional risk factors.

  • The link between short sleep duration and obesity: we should recommend more sleep to prevent obesity. The statement from the American Heart Association, published Thursday in its journal Circulationsummarizes research on the ways in which belly fat and other measures of obesity affect heart health.

  • Google Scholar Diaz-Gutierrez, J. The effectiveness and risks of bariatric surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis, —

Publication types Review. Mattar et al. Requires public health measures to check and prevent continued weight gain. The amounts of weight loss or waist circumference reduction and improvement in blood pressure by low calorie diet 9091 appear to be at least as effective as treatment by drugs such as orlistat or liraglutide.

Wu, T. BMC Public Health 8 Google Scholar 59 Schwingshackl, L. It is recommended to use both standards. Jakicic, J. Karpe, F. Permission is granted, at no cost and without need for further request, for individuals, media outlets, and non-commercial education and awareness efforts to link to, quote, excerpt or reprint from these stories in any medium as long as no text is altered and proper attribution is made to American Heart Association News.

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