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On taxing sugar sweetened beverages to combat the obesity problem: Soda Taxes Are Not a Sensible Solution to Combat Obesity

Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? Only steep taxes added to a large amount of unhealthy food and beverages will keep consumers from switching to other unhealthy foods, according to Oliver Mytton, academic clinical fellow at the University of Oxford and lead author of the study.

Ethan Walker
Friday, June 15, 2018
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  • These results could indicate that the poorer households who continue to purchase SSBs will spend a larger percentage of their income on the tax than wealthier populations [ 33 ]. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil.

  • Alessandro Bonanno,

  • At the same time, other drivers of obesity—including economic growth and urbanization—continue to change food and workplace environments in MICs, exacerbating the imbalance between higher food intake and lower levels of physical activity [ 6 ]. Additionally, one study relied on meta-analysis own- and cross-PE estimates, as local data on price and consumption were unavailable [ 17 ].

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According to the study, some food industry groups say higher taxes could damage the industry and lead problme job losses. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search email available below. In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago.

New Engl J Med. N Engl J Med. Rose G. Bioethical analysis can make an important contribution to the public health policymaking process by establishing a coherent moral framework for why governments should or should not intervene in public health in certain ways. Public health ethics principles.

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For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its beverrages, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search email available below. The study also called for subsidizing the cost of healthy foods and vegetables to make them more affordable to greater numbers of people. You can help correct errors and omissions. Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. Unhealthy foods and drinks are only a small contributor to many factors that lead to obesity, according to Martin Binks, a clinical psychologist and CEO of Binks Behavioral Health. And it's hoped a "fat" tax would work the same way. According to the study, some food industry groups say higher taxes could damage the industry and lead to job losses.

  • Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: Payer-and-service specific estimates. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: epidemiologic evidence.

  • LOG IN. After hospital CEO's tragic death, hundreds get vaccinated in his honor 2 hours ago.

  • One argument against the imposition of an excise tax alone is that it is regressive [ 124964 ].

  • Nearly 34 percent of Americans are obese, according to the U. Registered: Oral Capps Jr.

  • Thermodynamics and Chemistry [Website] Complements are products such as fast food whose consumption rises and falls with SSB products.

RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers. Jana Klauer, a New York private practice nutrition physician, likened soda prlblem a "gateway drug" to obesity. Most related items These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one. We'll notify you here with news about. Instead, the focus should lie on restoring physical activity programs and offering incentives and tax breaks for those who implement healthy behaviors — what he called, "actions that reward good behavior rather than punishing bad behavior.

Salmon and avocados, also high in problm so-called good fat, are also considered healthy foods. In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago. Previous studies suggest that the sharp tax increase on cigarettes in has contributed to the dramatic decrease in the number of smokers in the U. Louis Fed.

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Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes in Brazil. Since basing an ethical argument on only one ethical theory tends to mean it is based on factually inaccurate premises, we argue that grounding no analysis in several ethical theories will result in the premises of that analysis better reflecting the complexity of the evidence base surrounding SSBs taxation and obesity prevention generallythus leading to sounder ethical conclusions. Full cost-effectiveness studies would provide stronger evidence and allow policy makers to weigh these factors. This is true even in a country like India where baseline prevalence of overweight and obesity and sale of SSB per capita per day is low compared to other MICs. Effects of reduced juice allowances in food packages for the women, infants, and children program.

And it's hoped a "fat" tax would work the same way. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by sweeetened respective publishers. The study also called for subsidizing the cost of healthy foods and vegetables to make them more affordable to greater numbers of people. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact:. If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form. Top Stories.

Previous studies suggest that the sharp tax increase on cigarettes in has contributed to the dramatic decrease in the number of smokers in the U. But not all foods that are high in fat are considered unhealthy, which may challenge the notion of imposing a blanket tax, some food policy experts said. New lawsuit alleges P handgun has design, manufacturing flaws Aug 24, AM. ABC News Live. It's important to first distinguish what food and drink should be labeled "unhealthy" before imposing a tax, they said.

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My bibliography Save this paper. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc. Adding a high tax on unhealthy food and drinks may help slow the rising rates of obesity, according to a new study published Tuesday in the British Medical Journal. Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

  • Problem Statement Definition: For the purposes of this document, we define sugar-sweetened beverages SSBs as beverages to which caloric sweeteners are added by the manufacturer or bottler. In the past, those most susceptible to obesity and cardiovascular diseases were among the wealthier in the population but this is no longer the case.

  • If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation. FRED data.

  • This review does not include a meta-analysis due to variation in the targeted products, methods for estimating consumption, study designs, and difficulties in controlling for income, population, and other country-specific characteristics.

  • Thus, both premises in the libertarian argument are factually inaccurate—liberal ethical doctrine does not insist that zugar health interventions can only prevent direct harm to others, and SSBs consumption does generate significant social burdens in addition to the harms suffered by individual consumers. In this article we argue that no single ethical theory can account for the complexities inherent in obesity prevention strategy, especially the liberal theories relied upon by opponents of SSBs taxation.

  • Br J Nutr.

RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers. FRED data. This allows to link your profile to this item. Statistics Access and download statistics. Top Stories.

A pluralist approach to the ethics of fiscal policies such sweetrned levying taxes on SSBs is therefore essential to produce a sound explanation of whether they are morally acceptable in a democratic society. Hastings Cent Rep. In fact, many studies suggest otherwise. Andreyeva T, Long M, Brownell K: The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food. Such taxes may not be effective as people may purchase their SSBs via other outlets. This review excluded other systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as qualitative studies, case studies and reports, and letters to the editor.

Google Scholar. Most new ethical theories tailored to a public health context adopt such a pluralist or principled approach, meaning that they identify a discrete set of different principles or values that are deemed important for ethical public health policy, and judge a public health intervention according to all of these principles simultaneously. Chriqui et al. Prior to analyzing the ethicality of particular public health interventions, analysts must establish why a particular health issue should be a matter of public concern and require government intervention.

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Sweetende lawsuit alleges P handgun has design, manufacturing flaws Aug 24, AM. Statistics Access and download statistics. Unsaturated fat eaten in moderation can lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart disease. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about. We'll notify you here with news about.

Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. Keith Ayoob, associate professor of pediatrics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine agreed that food is not the only culprit for obesity. You can help correct errors and omissions. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc. This allows to link your profile to this item.

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Nearly 34 percent of Americans are obese, according to the Taxint. Instead, the focus should lie on restoring physical activity programs and offering incentives and tax breaks for those who implement healthy behaviors — what he called, "actions that reward good behavior rather than punishing bad behavior. In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago. Economic literature: papersarticlessoftwarechaptersbooks. The growing obesity rate has led to high cholesterol, and an increase in chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and cancer.

We will use this brief analysis to then argue that the only way to arrive at valid conclusions on the ethicality of SSBs taxation is to ground combat premises of arguments in a plurality of ethical theories. Studies in this review were also limited by overlapping categories of beverages within the datasets they used. Complements are products such as fast food whose consumption rises and falls with SSB products. The Lancet. Characteristics of Included Studies Characteristics of the nine studies included in this review are presented in Table 2. Rather, it estimated average changes in the prices and consumption of soda relative to other goods over an eight year period — From an early age this poses a risk of low nutrient intake because children tend to substitute SSBs for healthier drinks [ 2831 ].

Abstract Decisive public health policy measures must be implemented to counteract the rising rates of sugar-sweetened beverage SSB consumption among children and adults in the United States. Nature ; —9. Bhushan R. J Public Health Policy. The ethical analysis of SSBs taxation therefore must be pluralist.

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In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago. ABC News Live. A tax of at least 20 percent placed on sugar-sweetened drinks could drop obesity rates by 3. Previous studies suggest that the sharp tax increase on cigarettes in has contributed to the dramatic decrease in the number of smokers in the U. Instead, the focus should lie on restoring physical activity programs and offering incentives and tax breaks for those who implement healthy behaviors — what he called, "actions that reward good behavior rather than punishing bad behavior.

Only steep taxes added to a large amount of unhealthy food and beverages will keep consumers from switching to other unhealthy foods, according to Oliver Mytton, academic clinical on taxing sugar sweetened beverages to combat the obesity problem at the University of Oxford and lead author of the study. If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form. You can help correct errors and omissions. Turn on desktop notifications for breaking stories about interest? Instead, the focus should lie on restoring physical activity programs and offering incentives and tax breaks for those who implement healthy behaviors — what he called, "actions that reward good behavior rather than punishing bad behavior. This allows to link your profile to this item.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 34 percent of Americans prooblem obese, according to the U. LOG IN. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

MeSH terms

Available: www. Also, as the price of SSBs rises, the consumption of fruit juices and whole milk tends to increase and the consumption of diet drinks decreases. The analysis above demonstrates that basing arguments on the ethics of public health practice on one ethical theory leads to unsound conclusions. Ecuador 2.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. It also allows hte to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about. Salmon and avocados, also high in unsaturated so-called good fat, are also considered healthy foods. According to the study, some food industry groups say higher taxes could damage the industry and lead to job losses. Turn on desktop notifications for breaking stories about interest? After hospital CEO's tragic death, hundreds get vaccinated in his honor 2 hours ago.

But not all foods that are combat the obesity in fat are considered unhealthy, which may challenge the notion of sewetened a blanket tax, some food policy experts said. And it's hoped a "fat" tax would work the same way. If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form. The study also called for subsidizing the cost of healthy foods and vegetables to make them more affordable to greater numbers of people. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Seventy-eight duplicates were removed and, based on a review of titles and abstracts, 1, records were excluded because they did not align with this review or data were not from MICs. The ethical analysis of SSBs taxation therefore must be pluralist. An SSB tax could fund such campaigns. Because low-income populations have less money to spend on groceries, SSB taxes can potentially have a greater effect on consumption in this population.

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It's important to first distinguish what food and drink should be labeled "unhealthy" before imposing a tax, they said. Registered: Oral Capps Jr. In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those obesiyt by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. Most related items These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search email available below. Turn on desktop notifications for breaking stories about interest?

Other foods studied in relation to the prices heverages SSB products include food prepared away from home, candies, snacks, and sugar [ 3445 ]. Health Aff. Prevalence and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, — To produce more accurate estimates of impact, more evaluations using longitudinal data and quasi-experimental design are needed.

Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? New lawsuit alleges P handgun has design, manufacturing flaws Aug 24, AM. If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form.

And it's hoped a "fat" tax would work the same way. But some experts say that cost to jobs is not as risky as the economic cost if Americans remain obese. The goal of the tax is to curb sales of unhealthy food and decrease overconsumption, which may help to prevent disease. But not all foods that are high in fat are considered unhealthy, which may challenge the notion of imposing a blanket tax, some food policy experts said.

Because low-income populations have less money to spend on groceries, SSB taxes can potentially have a greater effect on consumption in this population. Taxing SSBs is a promising intervention. They may also consider implementing the tax with other obesity prevention interventions. BMC Public Health. Upcoming research should estimate price elasticities in low- and middle-income countries and identify potential health gains from taxes combined with subsidies of healthy food. Article Google Scholar 3.

  • Sweetening of the global diet, particularly beverages: patterns, trends, and policy responses.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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  • Prior to analyzing the ethicality of particular public health interventions, analysts must establish why a particular health issue should be a matter of public concern and require government intervention. After submission, Imperial College London kindly agreed to fund the open access fees for this paper.

  • Furthermore, it is not clear from the epidemiological evidence that consumers' autonomy is affected by SSBs taxes. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics.

New lawsuit alleges P handgun has design, manufacturing flaws Aug 24, AM. Jana Klauer, a New York private practice nutrition physician, oobesity soda to a "gateway drug" to obesity. If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. Adding a high tax on unhealthy food and drinks may help slow the rising rates of obesity, according to a new study published Tuesday in the British Medical Journal. LOG IN. FRED data.

In the case of rights-based rhe accounts, the enjoyment of one right can exclude the enjoyment of another, and competing rights must be balanced using additional principles such as proportionality. MIC governments may want to consider adjusting existing surveys to create opportunities for stronger research and evaluation. BMC Public Health. Software: SSN. Regulations relating to the reduction of sodium in certain foodstuffs and related matters.

Jana Klauer, a New York private practice nutrition physician, likened soda to a "gateway drug" to obesity. New lawsuit alleges P handgun has design, manufacturing flaws Aug 24, AM. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact:.

Extensive evidence shows that implementing taxes on the consumption of SSBs generates significant health gains and has a positive impact on the reduction of premature mortality. The Tax Foundation works hard to provide insightful tax policy analysis. Pratt K. All showed negative own-price elasticity, which means that higher prices are associated with a lower demand for SSBs.

Rethinking the meaning of public health. Studies quantifying the effect of excess energy intake on bodyweight can help evaluate whether xombat SSB prices can impact population health outcomes. Additionally, one study relied on meta-analysis own- and cross-PE estimates, as local data on price and consumption were unavailable [ 17 ]. Rebuttal: As stated above, the body does not respond to liquid calories in the way it responds to solid calories. Complements are products such as fast food whose consumption rises and falls with SSB products. This conflict of interest casts doubt on their results.

The New England Journal of Medicine. All mistakes that may appear in this article are the exclusive responsibility of the authors. Our work depends on support from members of the public like you.

Three of the nine studies included all SSB consumption by individuals or households, while the others are restricted to obesty consumption. Google Scholar Discussion This comprehensive literature review suggests that an increase in price of SSBs is associated with a decrease in consumption; and the higher the price increase, the greater the reduction in consumption. J Law Med Ethics. Received : 30 April In addition, an increase in price of SSBs would likely reduce consumption [ 1844 ]. Table 3 shows ten estimates of own-price elasticity reported in nine of the studies: six from the USA [ 1847 — 51 ] and one each from Mexico [ 44 ], Brazil [ 46 ] and France [ 45 ].

Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis. All included studies were observational or modeling studies, which limits their wweetened to causally attribute changes in consumption or obesity outcomes to the policy or market-driven price changes observed. The World Health Organization WHO promotes taxes as among the most effective means of controlling tobacco and alcohol use [ 89 ]. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Evidently, fostering every individual's agency to make healthy decisions is important to population sustainability, however beveragea is clear from the seminal work by Geoffrey Rose 10 and continued by others 11promoting good health within a society requires greater attention to be devoted to how factors affecting health impact upon groups of individuals, rather than individuals in isolation. The relationship between the prices of SSB products and various juices and alcohol could not be determined from these studies. Am J Clin Nutr. Obesity Reviews. Abstract Decisive public health policy measures must be implemented to counteract the rising rates of sugar-sweetened beverage SSB consumption among children and adults in the United States.

But not all foods that are high in fat are considered sweeyened, which may challenge the notion of imposing a blanket tax, some food policy experts said. It's important to first distinguish what food and drink should be labeled on taxing sugar sweetened beverages to combat the obesity problem before imposing a tax, they said. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation. For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search email available below. The study also called for subsidizing the cost of healthy foods and vegetables to make them more affordable to greater numbers of people. This allows to link your profile to this item.

S Afr Ln J. The evidence base remains insufficient to definitively determine whether taxing SSBs will be more or less effective in MICs versus high-income countries, though it does indicate that differences will unlikely be large. Dawson A. Results for juice were mixed. The content of the work presented here is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the IDRC. However, low income households, as a group, are also likely to reap greater benefit. This additional analysis was not pre-specified.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: AgEcon Search email available below. If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation. Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors.

Salmon and avocados, also high in unsaturated so-called good fat, are also considered healthy foods. The growing obesity rate has led to high cholesterol, and an increase in chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and cancer. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Thus, both premises in the libertarian argument are factually inaccurate—liberal ethical doctrine does not insist that public health interventions can only prevent direct harm to others, and SSBs consumption does generate significant social burdens in addition to the harms suffered by individual consumers. Fig 1. Journal of Public Economics. SSB consumption may rise further in MICs where multinational companies are targeting new investments [ 5 ], potentially accelerating the increase in the morbidity and mortality from obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. With respect to obesity, an effective starting point to diminish unhealthy food consumption might be through taxing of SSBs [ 17 ]. Before-and-after repeated cross-sectional study 3.

Louis Fed. Thhe related items These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. New lawsuit alleges P handgun has design, manufacturing flaws Aug 24, AM. A tax of at least 20 percent placed on sugar-sweetened drinks could drop obesity rates by 3. Previous studies suggest that the sharp tax increase on cigarettes in has contributed to the dramatic decrease in the number of smokers in the U. Statistics Access and download statistics.

The study also called for subsidizing the cost of healthy foods and vegetables to make them more affordable to greater numbers of people. Unhealthy foods and drinks are only a small contributor to many factors that lead to obesity, according to Martin Binks, a clinical psychologist and CEO of Binks Behavioral Health. My bibliography Save this paper.

Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. Jana Klauer, a New York private practice nutrition physician, likened soda to a "gateway drug" to obesity. Statistics Access and download statistics. Turn on desktop notifications for breaking stories about interest? According to the study, some food industry groups say higher taxes could damage the industry and lead to job losses.

This review assessed nine studies, including three quasi-experimental studies, and four non-experimental, and two modeling studies. The logical pathway in Fig 1 illustrates how taxes on SSBs can reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight if several assumptions hold. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Evidence from Household Retail Purchases. It requires that the title or abstract in the studies include a relevant financial, nutritional, and outcome term. From an early age this poses a risk of low nutrient intake because children tend to substitute SSBs for healthier drinks [ 2831 ].

Correspondence to Karen J Hofman. A funnel plot test was performed to check for possible bias in the own-price elasticities incorporated in the meta-analysis. There are two important reasons for considering a tax on sugar content: Firstly, it would avoid substitution in favour of other products with high sugar content [ 45 ] and secondly, it might provide an incentive for industry to reduce the sugar content of SSBs. Learn More. Thus, both premises in the deontological argument based on autonomy are factually inaccurate—governments have more and arguably more important duties than simply to protect consumer autonomy, and SSBs taxation probably does not appear to influence consumer autonomy to a very large extent and testing this more forensically would constitute an acknowledgment that consumer autonomy is a frail concept. Dietary risk factors including low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, and omega-3 fatty acids and physical inactivity are estimated to be responsible for ten percent of the global health loss, expressed as disability-adjusted life years [ 6 ].

The limitations are twofold. Project administration: SSN. Contact us Submission enquiries: bmcpublichealth biomedcentral. Quasi-experimental, observational studies.

Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc. A growing number of European countries, including Denmark and France, have already imposed a tax on unhealthy food and drinks. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers. Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services. Alessandro Bonanno,

And it's hoped a "fat" tax would work the same obssity. Unhealthy foods and drinks are only a small contributor to many factors that lead to obesity, according to Martin Binks, a clinical psychologist and CEO of Binks Behavioral Health. In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea

Overall this review suggests that taxing SSBs may benefit health. Quasi-experimental, observational studies. Low income earners are now a population sweetejed high consumption of unhealthy obesogenic food [ 6566 ]. Article Google Scholar The link between intake of SSBs and obesity-related health outcomes is well established [ 27 — 29 ], as is the link between the intake of SSBs and conditions such as osteoporosis [ 30 ] and dental caries [ 28 ].

The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages. Open in a separate window. The unit of estimates from this study is: change in the product price in pesos in relative to pre-tax the pre-tax price. This suggests that any increase in milk consumption would be smaller than the decrease in SSB consumption, given an increase in SSB prices and no other changes affecting consumption patterns.

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Help us Corrections Found an error txing omission? ABC News Live. A tax of at least 20 percent placed on sugar-sweetened drinks could drop obesity rates by 3. If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. Comments 0. Nearly 34 percent of Americans are obese, according to the U. Most related items These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.

  • Geneva: WHO, January.

  • If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

  • The present study will also include non-US studies, and so contribute to the evidence base on the contribution that SSB taxation can make to improving diets and health around the world. The quality checklist was adapted to differentiate among the large number of studies based on cross-sectional data by reporting the number of time points each study estimated within its study period.

  • The public health community should work with the National Conference of State Legislatures, the United States Conference of Mayors, the National Governors Association, and others to promote this policy.

  • Country 2. Of the studies performed in the USA, two used tax data and four price data, while the studies performed in Mexico, Brazil and France used price data.

You can help obesitg errors and omissions. In private, Qatar warn US officials of 'growing crises' at bases housing Afghans 2 hours ago. One out of five children drink three or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day, accounting for an extra meal, according to the HBO documentary series, " Weight of the Nation ," which is airing this week. Registered: Oral Capps Jr. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ABC News Live.

BMC Public Health 13, Hum Ecol. Fig 2. Individuals will just switch to other types of sweetened beverages, making the tax ineffective. Would you consider contributing to our work? The studies reporting weight outcomes were too heterogeneous to be pooled.

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