Advertisement

Sign up for our daily newsletter

Advertisement

Posner task endogenous obesity – Perspectives of CB1 Antagonist in Treatment of Obesity: Experience of RIO-Asia

The Handbook of Research Synthesis. It is an arrow or other directional cue pointing to the left or right box on the screen.

Ethan Walker
Monday, May 20, 2019
Advertisement
  • Chang, C.

  • Rafal, R. To exclude confounding effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognition Hillman et al.

  • Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

  • Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Robertson, E.

  • Haschke, and W. For the behavioral data, since the values of the accuracy rate were not normally distributed, statistical assessment of this was carried out with the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test.

Change Password

Hirose, K. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology29— Neural correlates of encoding and expression in implicit sequence learning. This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multinational study was carried out in 32 centers in ChinaRepublic of Koreaand Taiwan between April and April

The serial reaction time task: implicit motor skill obesity In most cases, studies endogrnous inattentional blindness involve a single critical trial in which an object appears unexpectedly while observers are performing their task. Google Scholar 2 Flegal, K. Gasteyger, A. Cancer 89— This indicates that weight status during childhood could be related to the visuospatial attention networks that have been implicated in executive functions Bruce et al. What is Inattentional blindness in psychology?

Body wndogenous correlates inversely with inhibitory control in response to posner task endogenous obesity among adolescent girls: an fMRI study. Visual attention. Perry, R. After the button was pressed, the screen cleared and the next trial started ms later. The spatial cueing or Posner cueing task Posner, is a common paradigm for studying visual attention.

Pharmacologic Treatment of Obesity

Non-esterified fatty acids regulate lipid and glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis in healthy man. When expressed as endogenou percentage, rimonabant-treated patients lost 6. Baron, R. Effect of insulin and of alloxan diabetes on growth of the rat mammary carcinoma in vivo. A liver lesion characterized by liver cell injury and death, and hepatic inflammation that can be accompanied by progressive hepatic fibrosis.

A prospective study of plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and colorectal cancer risk among obesitu. Ebeling, P. Statistical Analysis The sample size calculations for the study were derived from the RIO-Europe study and were based on a test to compare the mean change in weight primary variable and HDL-cholesterol secondary confirmatory variable from baseline between the 2 groups. Screening for cervical and breast cancer: is obesity an unrecognized barrier to preventive care?

These previous findings suggest that individuals with obesity show less activation in the prefrontal cortex implicated in the attention and cognitive control Babiloni et al. Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete stimulus while ignoring other perceivable stimuli. Muti, P. Cancer 48—

Executive control of emotional conflict. P auditory event-related potentials in children with obesity: is childhood obesity related to impairment in cognitive functions? London: Psychological Corporation Ltd. In: Posner MI, editor. Indeed, recent paper 25 recording eye movements in children of about 9 years old used a number of trials similar to ours.

Key Points

For example, a neutral cue could be a double-sided arrow. Neuroimage 31, None of obexity children who took part in the current work had any clear signs of neurological disorders or behavioral problems, or special needs in education that would exclude them from this study. PMID To the left and the right of the point are two boxes.

Lifestyle correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like endogenous obesity factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Psychophysiology46— Freedland, S. Discussion The present study examined covert orienting of visuospatial attention, either valid or invalid with target presentation, in children with obesity and healthy weight, with the aim of better understanding the visuospatial attention abilities of the obese group. Height, weight, weight change, and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer. Bergman, R.

ALSO READ: Probnp Obesity Hypoventilation

Posner MI. Obesuty, Babiloni et al. In addition, no significant difference obese: 0. Neuropsychologia 9, 97— Posner task endogenous obesity values of number of errors made by each child in endogenous A and exogenous B conditions in the three different visual sub-conditions valid, neutral, and invalid tested. Polich, J. All the participants had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and were right-handed, as assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory Oldfield,

Epworth Posner task endogenous obesity Scale. The behavioral data revealed that the obese group responded more slowly, especially in the invalid condition, and exhibited a deficit in attentional inhibition capacity as compared to the control group. Twenty-six children with obesity obese group and 26 healthy weight children control group were recruited. Li, Y.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Google Scholar. Risk factors for renal-cell cancer in Shanghai, China. Mechanisms of deficit of visuospatial attention shift in children with developmental coordination disorder: a neurophysiological measures of the endogenous Posner paradigm.

  • State-level estimates of annual medical expenditures attributable to obesity. Nutrition and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

  • The effect of the SOA varies depending on whether a central or peripheral cue is used. The latency values made by each child tested in the two distinct attention conditions endogenous vs.

  • Case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among women and heterosexual men in the San Francisco Bay area, California.

  • Psychophysiology 37, — Children who are overweight are also prone to remain overweight as adults Whitaker et al.

Click to see full answer. Sex steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, and obesity in men and women. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Science77—79 Psychophysiology3090— Weight loss in breast cancer patient management. National Center for Health Statistics.

Although some potentially confounding factors e. Human volitional posner task endogenous obesity is typically assessed using Posner's endogenous cuing task. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of voluntary and stimulus-driven orienting of attention. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3, However, in agreement with Carnell et al.

Publication types

Impaired mental rotation performance in overweight children. Nederkoorn et al. To answer to this question, we examined the eye movement latency in a Posner task in children with ADHD. However, although reduced attentional ability Cserjesi et al.

  • Lancet—

  • C-LT designed the study, wrote the protocol, and the first draft of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

  • Strom, B.

  • Each block was separated by a few minutes of rest. After the nature of the procedure had been explained, a written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their parents.

Obesity and colon cancer: does leptin provide a link? View at: Google Scholar R. Eimer, M. Nutrition and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

Statistical Analysis The sample size calculations for the study were derived from the RIO-Europe study obesity were based on a test to compare the mean change in weight primary variable and HDL-cholesterol secondary confirmatory variable from baseline between the 2 groups. Obesity and lowered cognitive performance in a Canadian first nation population. Figure 3. Biological Psychology89— Download references. What does endogenous mean in psychology? Murray, J.

Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. Secondary efficacy endpoints were waist circumference as a marker of change in abdominal obesityhigh-density tzsk HDL -cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting insulin, and glucose. Insulin and colon cancer. Insulin and IGF-I receptors signaling in protection from apoptosis. Estrogen receptor-mediated processes in normal and cancer cells. The report also includes a detailed discussion of hormonal and other mechanisms that might provide the physiological link between excess weight and tumour development. Rimonabant increased HDL-cholesterol by 7.

MeSH terms

Pontifex, M. Haschke, and W. Sobel, M.

Mcguire brothers obese child, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Visual search patterns in neglect: comparison of peripersonal and extrapersonal space. View at: Google Scholar Y. In contrast, healthy weight children could be less reliant on the spatial information given by the cue when preparing their responses, and thus maintain attentional scanning of the whole field.

Journal home Advance articles Current issue All issues. The percentage of patients who permanently discontinued due to TEAEs was low and comparable between the placebo 2. Tchernof, A. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction.

Navigation menu

Brain Res. These windows were determined from inspection of the endogenosu grand average waveforms, and were equivalent for ERP elicited by two conditions and subjects. We suggest also that they have a difficulty in the engagement of the inhibitory control system particularly during voluntary saccade performance. Diamond, A. How do cues change responses?

An invalid cue is "incorrect", gask that for examplean arrow cue points to the left side of the screen but precedes posner task endogenous obesity right-side target. The valid sub-condition in which arrows and peripheral luminance indicated the location of target, the neutral sub-condition in which there were no arrows and peripheral luminance, and the invalid sub-condition in which arrows and peripheral luminance indicated the opposite location of the target Figure 1. Cz vs. Behav Gene.

Covert orienting of attention and overt eye movements activate posner task endogenous obesity brain regions. Davis, C. This cue relies on visual input from the peripheral visual field. The overall stimulus display remained on-screen until the end of the trial, except for the white fixation cross, as this was replaced by a yellow cue arrow during each trial.

Introduction

Among the various different visual response ERP components elicited by the Posner paradigm, the endogenous ERP P3 regarding upstream processes has been demonstrated to reflect attention-related brain activity, that is, the resource allocation necessary for attention e. Close banner Close. Possible explanations regarding the relationships among aerobic fitness, cognitive performance, and brain potentials are discussed.

  • Attention can be categorized into two distinct functions: bottom-up attention, referring to attentional guidance purely by externally driven factors to stimuli that are salient because of their inherent properties relative to the background; and top-down attention, referring to internal guidance of attention based on.

  • Altered executive function in obesity.

  • Kaaks, R. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of these new antiobesity compounds are yet to be seen.

  • BMC Medicine

These windows were determined from inspection of the group grand average waveforms, and were equivalent for Endogenous obesity elicited by two conditions and subjects. Castellanos FX, Tannock R. This cue relies on visual input from the peripheral visual field. Compared to healthy weight children, those with obesity show reduced attentional focus Cserjesi et al.

Feigelson, H. Post hoc analyses indicated that the obese group Exogenous Variables An exogenous variable is a variable that is not affected by other variables in the system. Neural correlates of encoding and expression in implicit sequence learning. Executive cognitive function as a correlate and predictor of child food intake and physical activity. This cognitive ability is very important and is an essential function in our daily lives. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis.

Journal of Obesity

Close Figure Viewer. Papanicolaou, E. Rugg Ed.

  • Science77—79

  • Our result reinforced previous findings, suggesting that children with ADHD have difficulties to voluntarily disengage their attention from an erroneous condition invalid condition in order to engage attention in the correct direction 31 In contrast, there are consistent findings but with a reduced effect size showing a deficit of attention disengagement in the cognitive treatment of exogenous cues 15 ,

  • Kok, A. External link.

  • The adhesive electrodes that were placed on the supero-lateral right canthus and below and lateral to the left eye connected to the system reference for horizontal and vertical EOG i. Giovannucci, E.

  • Impulsivity predicts treatment outcome in obese children.

  • World Health Organization site on the epidemic of obesity. As a chronic condition, childhood obesity could be a contributor to the global burden of chronic disease, since children who are overweight or obese face a greater risk of developing various health problems, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus Reilly et al.

The amplitude values for all ERP components, with reference to the ms cue stimulus baseline, were determined within latency windows centered on the peak latency of the grand mean ERP. Perchet, C. Hillman, C. Atten Percept Psychophys. Norman, D. Weiskrantz Oxford: Oxford University Press—

  • Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience9 ,

  • Associations between obesity and cognition in the pre-school years. Therefore, given the findings in the present and previous studies, it seems probable that the obese group showed poorer executive functions involving visuospatial attention relative to the control group.

  • Psychology and Aging715—

  • Glucose is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and the chief source of energy for living organisms; its utilization is controlled by insulin.

  • Google Scholar 79 Engeland, A.

  • The authors thank the children who participated in the study.

Since the participant is not allowed to move posner task endogenous obesity eyes in response to the cue, but remain fixated on the centre of the screen, differences in reaction time between target stimuli preceded by these three cue conditions indicates that covert orienting of attention has been employed. Grand averaged waveforms P3 components for obese children and healthy weight control children for valid and invalid conditions at Fz, Cz, and Pz electrodes. Following a set inter-trial interval, lasting usually between and ms, the entire paradigm is repeated for a set number of trials predetermined by the experimenter. Exploration of the role of affective states on cognitive abilities. This cue relies on visual input from the peripheral visual field. P auditory event-related potentials in children with obesity: is childhood obesity related to impairment in cognitive functions?

P auditory event-related potentials in children with obesity: is childhood obesity related to impairment in cognitive functions? Diabetes Metab. Cue duration is a random value between and ms. Fergenbaum, J. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents.

Journal of Neuroscience. Age-related changes in fronto-parietal networks during spatial memory: an ERP study. The authors thank the children who participated in the study. All children were instructed to look at the target as accurately and as rapidly as possible.

Saccade latency indexes exogenous and endogenous object-based attention. These findings may be explained by a defect of inhibitory control in subjects with ADHD. Namespaces Article Talk. Table 3. Attention shift related to exogenous stimuli recruited a dorsal frontoparietal network, particularly the dorsal parietal cortex intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule and the dorsal frontal cortex along the precentral sulcus, near or in the frontal eye field. Cortex 24, —

Seidler, R. The time interval in between the onset of the cue and the onset of the target is defined as the stimulus onset asynchrony SOA. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. Although some potentially confounding factors e. Grand averaged waveforms P3 components for obese children and healthy weight control children for valid and invalid conditions at Fz, Cz, and Pz electrodes.

Also, the P3 amplitude and cognitive resource allocation may more or less reflect the physiological processes pposner to the RTs Muller and Knight,and since the children with obesity in the present study exhibited smaller P3 amplitudes, this might result in longer RTs. Exploration of the role of affective states on cognitive abilities. Indeed, Li et al. Behavioural Brain Research Impaired mental rotation performance in overweight children.

  • Author Contributions Dr.

  • Brain Mapp.

  • Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology29—

  • Linking ADHD to the neural circuitry of attention. Weiskrantz Oxford: Oxford University Press—

  • To exclude confounding effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on cognition Hillman et al. JAMA66—72

A global response to a global problem: the epidemic of overnutrition. Physical activity, anthropometric factors ibesity risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the Canadian enhanced cancer surveillance system. Hotamisligil, G. Golay, and L. A meta-analysis of obesity and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Diabetologia 40 Suppl. Dietary fat, fatty acid composition in plasma and the metabolic syndrome.

Del Giudice, M. MacKinnon, D. Exogenous Variables An exogenous variable is a variable that is not affected by other variables in the system. Annual Review of Psychology58— Rugg Ed. Therefore, how the role of fat mass influences the relationship between obesity and executive functions in children remains an open question.

Login to your account

The cognitive experiment was administered in a sound-attenuated room with dimmed lights. TD children were recruited from the general population. Likewise, Wirt et al. Similarly, Martin et al.

Twenty-six children with obesity obese group and 26 healthy weight children control group were recruited. A valid cue is "correct", in that an arrow pointing to the left side of the screen precedes a left-side target. Psychiatry 16, — In the neutral sub-condition, there were not arrows or peripheral luminance, but only the central cross. Polich, J.

  • For example, Cserjesi et al. Evidence shows that the incidence of obesity is increasing rapidly in Asian countries [ 12122 ].

  • Fitness, fatness, cognition, behavior, and academic achievement among overweight children: do cross-sectional associations correspond to exercise trial outcomes?

  • The risk of cancer or other disease in a group of exposed persons divided by the risk in a group of unexposed persons.

Inhibition of return Posner task endogenous obesity refers to an orientation mechanism that briefly enhances for approximately — milliseconds ms the speed and accuracy with which an object is detected after the object is attended, but then impairs detection speed and accuracy for approximately — milliseconds. Oxford: Blackwell; — Study participants were prescribed at baseline a hypocaloric diet for the study duration. Cavalli-Sforza, J. Effect of rimonabant on HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and waist circumference at each visit and at 9 months. Erickson, K.

Executive dysfunction in substance dependent individuals during drug use and abstinence: an posner task endogenous obesity of the behavioural, cognitive and emotional correlates of addiction. In terms of visuospatial ability, previous studies demonstrated that children with higher body mass index BMI i. Seidler, R. Associations between obesity and cognition in the pre-school years.

Neuroscience Letters, — Haschke, and W. Toniolo, P. Michaud, D.

Notably, the typical volitional orienting paradigm might be contaminated by simple contingency benefits and thus may not provide a pure measure of obesity processes. Dupaul, G. The serial reaction time task: implicit motor skill learning? In addition, the P3 component is also involved in conflict-related brain activity, this is, the attentional resources that are allocated to efficiently inhibit a response Jonkman et al. Front Psychol. In contrast, healthy weight children could be less reliant on the spatial information given by the cue when preparing their responses, and thus maintain attentional scanning of the whole field.

The present study investigates the behavioral performance and event-related potentials ERPs in children with obesity and healthy weight children when performing a visuospatial attention task. Genetics of insulin resistance. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of ovarian cancer. Aronne, H. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Pick and E. Endogeenous 9, 97— Children with obesity and IR posner task endogenous obesity significantly different electrophysiological performance compared to those without IR when doing the auditory oddball task, suggesting that IR is an important risk factor leading to cognitive dysfunction in such children Tascilar et al. In the future, it could be interesting to combine behavioral and neuroimaging studies for better understanding the neurophysiological hypotheses of the attentional deficits in subjects with ADHD. Parental education level [obese vs. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. Interactions between endogenous and exogenous attention on cortical visual processing.

Following a set endogenous obesity interval, lasting usually between and ms, the entire paradigm is repeated for a set number of losner predetermined by the experimenter. Response dependent fndogenous of human primary motor cortex and angular gyrus to manual and perceptual sequence learning. In contrast, attention shift related to endogenous tasks included not only the dorsal but also the ventral fronto-parietal network, which included the temporoparietal junction cortex the gyrus and the ventral part of the supra-marginal gyrus and the ventral frontal cortex including parts of the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, the frontal operculum, and the anterior insula 3. If the child did not respond to the target, the maximal inter-trial interval occurred 3 s after the target stimulus, and in such cases the system noted that there was a lack of response and a new trial was started. Bold values for latency A and number of errors B.

Although the anticipatory, endogenosu, and orientation errors did not differ significantly between obese and control groups, consonant with our hypothesis, the obese group relative to control group showed significantly slower RTs in the invalid condition and a significantly weaker inhibitory obesith of attention in the visuospatial attention task. An invalid cue is "incorrect", in that for examplean arrow cue points to the left side of the screen but precedes a right-side target. Obesity 17, — This cue relies on visual input from the peripheral visual field. Posner, M. The current findings also demonstrate that children with obesity, as compared to the healthy weight controls, suffered a reduction in the time efficiency of the central processing of cognitive functions associated with the disengagement of visuospatial attention. Despite poorer performance in visuospatial attention in children with higher BMI in the present study, BMI may sometimes underestimate the relationship between cognition and weight status during childhood.

Non-parametric Wilcoxon results for latency A and number tsak errors B. Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. In the general paradigm, observers are seated in front of a computer screen situated at eye level. Note that latency values could be used to probe the integrity of information processing and the allocation of attentional resources. Some tasks use neutral trials that do present cues. Martin, A.

Van Gaal, A. Mercer, J. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism due to dysregulation of androgen secretion. Some compounds of this kind have been shown to have promising results in lowering propensity to pass the blood-brain barrier with preserved weight-reducing effects in DIO mice [ 3637 ].

Gazzaniga Posnerr Blackwell mcguire brothers obese child, — In addition, the P3 component is also involved in conflict-related brain activity, this is, the attentional resources that are allocated to efficiently inhibit a response Jonkman et al. Davis, C. Attention shift related to exogenous stimuli recruited a dorsal frontoparietal network, particularly the dorsal parietal cortex intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule and the dorsal frontal cortex along the precentral sulcus, near or in the frontal eye field.

Attention and the control of movements. Cortex 24, — Covert attention involves mental focus or attention to an object without significant eye movement, and is the predominant area of interest when using the Posner cueing task for research. Cue duration is a random value between and ms.

  • The visuospatial attention task coupled with concomitant electrophysiological recording e.

  • In the two attention conditions endogenous vs. Adv Psychol.

  • Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. LDL: low-density lipoprotein.

  • Medeiros-Neto, G. Thus with a standard deviation SD of 6.

  • The Posner cueing taskalso known as the Posner paradigmis a neuropsychological test often used to assess attention.

Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions. Executive and Cognitive Functioneds A. Jansen, P. The cognitive task was presented on a computer screen, with a fixation cross 0. For the behavioral data, since the values of the accuracy rate were not normally distributed, statistical assessment of this was carried out with the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. Previous studies using this spatial cueing task found that in addition to cue validity, behavioural reactions were also affected by SOA.

Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U. Obesity Silver Spring 19 endogenous obesity However, pisner theory assumes that the attentional spotlight cannot be divided across multiple locations. Are energy and energy-providing nutrients related to exocrine carcinoma of the pancreas? Sex steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, and obesity in men and women. Additionally, although numerous studies demonstrate that children with obesity show impairments which inhibit their prepotent mental and behavioral responses, there is a lack of research with regard to the attentional inhibition of such a group.

Stice, E. Because resources are limited we can't enhance everything all the timethat enhancement is traded off against a decrease in visual processing away from the cue. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Tsai CL.

Moreover, P3 has been suggested as an envogenous component in children Jonkman et al. This method is used to differentiate overt and covert attention. The significance levels of the F ratios were adjusted with the Greenhouse—Geisser correction if the assumption of sphericity was violated. Although actual body fat content could not be reflected by BMI percentiles as measured from body weight Wirt et al. Neuron-specific contribution of the superior colliculus to overt and covert shifts of attention.

The results of the separate behavioral e. The effects of obesity, lbesity, and drinking on medical problems and costs. At 9 months, the percentage change in HDL-cholesterol revealed a steady increase in both treatment groups Figure 4 a. Majority of patients The worldwide obesity epidemic. What is top down processing? Holly, E.

Psychoneuroendocrinology41— Results for other cancers yask been inconsistent. Abstract The present study investigates the behavioral performance and event-related potentials ERPs in children with obesity and healthy weight children when performing a visuospatial attention task. Differences in neurocognitive performance and metabolic and inflammatory indices in male adults with obesity as a function of regular exercise.

  • Ohnishi, S.

  • Allport A. Inhibitory control includes self-control, which is related to resisting temptation and not acting impulsively, as well as interference control, which involves cognitive inhibition i.

  • A prospective study of plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and colorectal cancer risk among men. Cancer Causes Control 75—18

  • Wright, M. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events TEAEs was higher in the rimonabant group

In addition, when exposed to pictures of food in a eucaloric state or in response to anticipatory food, individuals with obesity ppsner obviously discrepant activation in the parietal lobe as compared to the lean individuals Stice et al. Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid-1 CB1 receptor antagonist, has been shown to reduce weight and enhance improvements in cardiometabolic risk parameters in Western populations. Request Username Can't sign in?

An error was recorded obese child to the following three standards: 1 anticipatory error: the participants responded sooner than ms; 2 orientation error: a button-pressing error occurred i. The overall stimulus display remained on-screen until the end of the trial, except for the white fixation cross, as this was replaced by a yellow cue arrow during each trial. To elicit endogenous and exogenous shifts of attention, we thus used a modified version of Posner's cueing task. It is worth noting with regard to attentional networks that obesity is related to a decrease in striatal dopaminergic receptors Wang et al. Parametric measures of effect size. SC and MB: writing original draft.

  • Oquendo, M.

  • Children with mathematical learning difficulties are sluggish in disengaging attention.

  • Inhibitory control includes self-control, which is related to resisting temptation and not acting impulsively, as well as interference control, which involves cognitive inhibition i. Google Scholar 11 Bjorntorp, P.

  • Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction. Neural correlates of encoding and expression in implicit sequence learning.

The relation of adiposity to cognitive control and scholastic achievement in preadolescent children. Exp Brain Res. Overall, our study suggested that children with ADHD may allocate their attention resource toward the detection of exogenous targets with a deficit in their ability to perform an endogenous task. Conversely, in invalid trials, the stimulus is presented on the side opposite to that indicated by the cue.

In the obesity condition, peripheral luminance onsets obbesity used to draw attention automatically. In contrast, there are consistent findings but with a reduced effect size showing a deficit of attention disengagement in the cognitive treatment of exogenous cues 15 Each block was separated by a few minutes of rest. Non-parametric Wilcoxon results for latency A and number of errors B. Child Adolesc. Dagenback and T. Butler, B.

Exp Brain Res. Moreover, some recent studies suggest that childhood obesity could not only be associated with adverse health endogenous obesity, but also with cognitive problems Davis and Cooper, ; Liang et al. Table 3. Derived from these findings, the neuropsychological Posner task was built to assess the individual's ability to perform an attentional shift by exploring the attentional disengagement from endogenous or exogenous tasks.

Papanicolaou, E. Mean age posner task endogenous obesity years with more atsk two thirds of patients being women Successful intervention strategies for weight loss and maintenance at the individual and community level are needed to reduce cancer risk. Diet composition and the metabolic syndrome: what is the optimal fat intake? Bixler et al.

Communication Monographs76— Top-down processing is a cognitive process that initiates with our thoughts, which flow down to lower-level functions, such as the senses. First citation in article Google Scholar Lo, Y. Journal of Psychiatric Research12— Cancer 83— Pz as the within-subjects variables. Effects of exercise intervention on event-related potential and task performance indices of attention networks in children with developmental coordination disorder.

The cue is sometimes "exogenous" e. Polich, J. Psychiatry 16, —

  • It is found in the blood of all animals.

  • Attention: Reaction time and accuracy reveal different mechanisms.

  • Screening and interventions for obesity in adults: summary of the evidence for the U.

  • Cancer 34— Mean age was years with more than two thirds of patients being women

  • Although the anticipatory, delay, and orientation errors did not differ significantly between obese and control groups, consonant with our hypothesis, the obese group relative to control group showed significantly slower RTs in the invalid condition and a significantly weaker inhibitory control of attention in the visuospatial attention task.

The authors obsity that the research was conducted in the absence of any posner task endogenous obesity or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Neuroimaging and obesity: current knowledge and future directions. The Posner cueing taskalso known as the Posner paradigmis a neuropsychological test often used to assess attention. In parallel, we measured the number of errors made by each child in the two distinct attention conditions endogenous vs.

Role of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in controlling Obesity actions. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing financial interests. Pbesity results indicated that the average value of the strength of the inhibitory response effect invalid RT-valid RT obese: Metabolism 52— Height, body mass index, and prostate cancer: a follow-up ofNorwegian men. Heymsfield, S. Effect of insulin and of alloxan diabetes on growth of the rat mammary carcinoma in vivo.

Read more about:

Sidebar1?
Sidebar2?